|British rule - the Raj|
|British rule from the time after
the mutiny is often called the Raj. During this period a tiny
number of British officials and troops (about 20,000 in all)
ruled over 300 million Indians. This was often seen as evidence
that most Indians accepted and even approved of British rule.
There is no doubt that Britain could not have controlled India
without the co-operation of Indian princes and local leaders,
as well as huge numbers of Indian troops, police officers,
civil servants etc.
Other historians point out that British rule of India was maintained by the fact that Indian society was so divided that it could not unite against the British. In fact, the British encouraged these divisions. The better-off classes were educated in English schools. They served in the British army or in the civil service. They effectively joined the British to rule their poorer fellow Indians. There are huge arguments about whether the British created or enlarged these divisions in Indian society (British society was deeply divided by class), or whether the British simply took advantage of divisions that were already present in Indian society. For much of the 1800s the average Indian peasant had no more say in the way he or she was ruled than did the average worker in the United Kingdom.
The British view tended to portray British rule as a charitable exercise - they suffered India's environment (eg climate, diseases) in order to bring to India good government and economic development (eg railways, irrigation, medicine). Modern admirers of British rule also note these benefits.
Other historians point out that ruling India brought huge benefits to Britain.
India's huge population made it an attractive market for British industry. In the 1880s, for example, about 20% of Britain's total exports went to India. By 1910 these exports were worth £137 million. India also exported huge quantities of goods to Britain, especially tea, which was drunk or exported on from Britain to other countries. Then there were the human resources.
The Indian army was probably Britain's single greatest resource.
Around 40% of India's wealth was spent on the army. This army was used by Britain all over the world, including the wars in South Africa in 1899-1902 and the First and Second World Wars. It was the backbone of the power of the British empire.
In 1901, for example, the British viceroy (governor) of India, Lord Curzon, said 'As long as we rule India, we are the greatest power in the world. If we lose it we shall straightway drop to a third rate power'.[that is true today]
|Indian troops at Portsmouth
in 1882 waiting to be shipped to Egypt to tackle a rebellion
against British rule. The British relied heavily on Indian troops
to enforce their military power.
(Catalogue ref: COPY 1/59 f.371)
India actually started importing food under British rule, because Indians were growing 'cash crops' like cotton and tea to be sent to Britain.
It is extremely important not to forget the terrible famines that devastated India. These were partly the result of weather, but partly caused by British policies.
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigo_revolt1 Causes of the revolt; 2 The revolt; 3 The effect on the British rulers in India; 4 Cultural ... The indigo planters left no stones unturned to make money. ... Once a farmer took such loans he remained in debt for whole of his life before passing it to ... Out of the severe oppression unleashed on them the farmers resorted to revolt.
On the other hand, research suggests that from about 1870 to 1930 Britain took about 1% of India's wealth per year.[false.they took much more ]
Rammohun Roy criticized the East India Company for taking two million pounds out of India to London - year 1820http://gallimafry.blogspot.in/2013/05/rammohun-roy-and-social-reform-rammohun.html
Much before Dadabhai Naoroji and the so-called ‘modern nationalist’ school came up with a figure for India’s drain of wealth chroniclers had put it at more than 100,000 million pound sterling per year.
This was much less than the French, Dutch and Germans took from their lands. The British invested about £400 million in the same period. They brought in an irrigation programme, which increased the amount of land available for farming by 8 times. They developed a coal industry, which had not existed before. Public health and life expectancy increased under British rule, mainly due to improved water supplies and the introduction of quinine treatment against malaria.
Big landowners, Indian princes, the Indian middle classes all gained in terms of job opportunities, business opportunities and careers in areas like the law. Ordinary Indians gained little, but the argument still continues about whether British rule made much difference to their lives. Many historians think that the majority of Indians would have remained poor even if they had been ruled by Indians.
greatgameindia.wordpress.com/.../hidden-gears-of-the-industrial-revoluti...Apr 15, 2013 – The Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in ... the drug-trafficking money and consequently flush it out to Britain read ... The British rulers even took over the technology of India, along with money. ... which helped in the inventions like “The Spinning Jenny” in the year 1764, “The ...
Constructive Impact of British Rule in India
[another false claim-European education was introduced by Macaulay for producing clerks and etc for the English office;not for educating Indians]
click and read:-
- minute on Education (1835) by Thomas Babington Macaulay
Macaulay001.htm. Numbers in ... Minute by the Hon'ble T. B. Macaulay, dated the 2nd February 1835.  As it seems to be ..... But such is our policy. We do not even ...
Amidst all these alarming states and conditions, the imperial rule were compassionate enough to introduce European education in India. This ground-breaking impact of British rule in India truly has benefited India in the long run, carving out a prestigious position of India in the world map. Knowledge of English was essential to earn a job in the British bureaucracy, in the British trading firms and of course in the British Army in the officer`s level. Many dignified concepts like parliamentary democracy, the European scientific ideas, industrialisation and liberal human philosophy permeated into the Indian brain.
The British had introduced the system of Railways[mainly for troop movements after 1856 Indian uprising ,later for goods]
INDIA -THE BRITISH LEGACY
India hardly had any large-scale industry in 1947, which could process the raw-material into finished usable goods. There were a few industries in the cotton, jute, sugar, matches, and steel sectors, etc. - but they were too few to really service the country's needs. About 65-70% of India's less-than-Rs.600cr export consisted of raw material (cotton, oilseeds, minerals and ores, tobacco, etc.); around the same proportion of its imports were finished goods (ranging from biscuits, sewing needles, cloth etc., to dress-material, medicines to machines-tools). In fact, even in 1950, India was importing 90% of its requirement of machine tools.
Indian Railways – The British Legacy
Indian Railway system too suffered from this approach. Especially after WWI, the Great Depression and the currency crisis, starved of investments and renewal, Indian railways suffered.
During WW2, nearly 40% rolling stock from India was diverted to the Middle East. More than 50% of the track system was the outdated metre gauge and narrow gauge. Track systems were nearly a century old. 40% of the railway system went to Pakistan. 32 of the forty-two separate railway systems operating in India, were owned by the former Indian princely states. More than 8000 outdated steam engines were used as motive power – and less than 20 diesel locomotives were in use. Apart from elephants and people – called as ‘hand-shunting’ in Indian Railways lingo.
So much for the British gift of railways to India.
The railways run by the Indian princely states became party to the collusive price fixing systems. Like this extract (linked to the right) shows, all the business went to the British engineering yards. To this add the guaranteed returns systems, and what was achieved was something else.“The guarantee system did not encourage cost control, and, at an average cost of BP18,000 per mile, the Indian railways were some of the costliest in the world. Starved of investments and maintenance, the railways infrastructure at the time of British departure was crumbling
(From Mumbai to Thane at First) in a chain method, with the whole of the country staying witness to placing of railways tracks, railway platforms and railway carriages. Indeed India`s railways, postal services, legal and judicial systems and other government-based services have all been derived primarily from the British administration.
British rule in India virtually had helped unify India
[false claim-India was unified under various Indian emperors from Asoka
which till then was quite fragmentary. The in-built inferiority complex was the characteristic trademark of the mass of the native population, till Mahatma Gandhi and many other nationalist leaders like Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Jawaharlal Nehru arrived onto the scene. The bulk of Indian students who set sail to England for higher studies were at first profoundly shocked in seeing white men and women performing lowly jobs in England.