On June 3, 1947, the British Government announced its plan to divide British India between India and Pakistan and the subsequent transfer of power to the two countries. The division of the British Indian Army occurred on June 30, 1947 in which Pakistan received six armored, eight artillery and eight infantry regiments compared to the forty armored, forty artillery and twenty one infantry regiments that went to India.[12] At the Partition Council, which was chaired by Rear Admiral Lord Mountbatten of Burma, the Viceroy of India,

 and was composed of the leaders of the Muslim League and
the Indian National Congress, they had agreed that the British Indian Army of 11,800 officers and 500,000 enlisted personnel was to be divided to the ratio of 64% for India and 36% for Pakistan.

By August 15, 1947, both India and Pakistan had operational control over their armed forces. General Sir Frank Messervy 
was appointed as the first Army Commander-in-Chief of the new Pakistan Army. General Messervy was succeeded in this post in February 1948, by General Sir Douglas Gracey, who served until January 1951.


Partition of India[INDIAN PAKISTANI ARMED FORCES WERE UNDER BRITISH OFFICERS] - refugees displaced by the partition

Migration OF REGUGEES [UNDER BRITISH MILITARY OFFICERS] on India-Pakistan Partition of Punjab 



The British admitted that Jinnah had neither power nor organization. He was the leader of a minority. A minority which could survive only on the strength of British support. The Viceroy, thus, assured his superiors that Jinnah was a one hundred per cent British stooge! The interesting conundrum is that if Jinnah lacked power and organization, how could he be considered the custodian of Muslim rights? The British declared that they had called the elections so that the  Indian  public  could  elect  its representatives. These would then become the spokespersons for the country. Jinnah's status among such political heavyweights was extremely fragile. The British knew that Jinnah himself was clearly aware of the vulnerability of his position.

 At a meeting held in Lahore, which approved the creation of Pakistan, Jinnah revealed to his colleagues that until now the Viceroy thought Gandhiji was all in all. But now he sang a different tune, "After the war [began] I was treated on the same basis as Mr Gandhi. I was wonderstruck why all of a sudden I was promoted and given a place side by side with Mr Gandhi." Fully aware of   his   tenuous  position.  Jinnah  was surprised to find himself ranked along with Gandhiji. He was conscious of the fact that so far he had never won a popular election and that his organizational skills were nil. Therefore his political life hung by the thread of British patronage. And to that he clung fast. He was clever enough to realize that he was the government's most potent weapon against the Congress. He. therefore, proceeded to take the maximum advantage of his position as canon fodder. But he kept a degree of restraint upon himself so as not to alienate the British by exploiting their vulnerability with his profligacy. Seeing that the Secretary of State was still skeptical about all this, Linlithgow wrote again on 4 October 1943, im

Facts Are Facts (Part 18 ):-



Map of Kashmir

India–Pakistan relations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

---------------- He wanted to make his state the Switzerland of the East since the population of the state depended on tourism and persons from all regions could come to an independent Jammu and Kashmir with ease. For this reason, he offered a standstill agreement (for maintaining the status quo) to both India and Pakistan. India refused the offer but Pakistan accepted it. Despite the standstill agreement, team of Pakistani forces were dispatched into Kashmir. Backed by Pakistani paramilitary forces, Pashtun Mehsud tribals[10] invaded Kashmir in October 1947 under the code name "Operation Gulmarg" to seize Kashmir. They reached and captured Baramulla on 25 October.
 Instead of moving on to Srinagar just 50 km away and capturing its undefended airfield, they stayed there for several days. Kashmir's security forces turned out to be too weak and ill-equipped to fight against Pakistan. Fearing that this invasion would bring about an accession to Pakistan, the Maharaja now turned to India and requested India for troops to safeguard Kashmir.


20 March, 2011

Lieutenant Colonel G.H Harvey Kelly-A Forgotten British Hero of Kashmir War

Lieutenant Colonel G.H Harvey Kelly-A Forgotten British Hero of Kashmir War



Lieutenant Colonel G.H Harvey Kelly was a British officer who fought the 1947-48 Kashmir war with Pakistan Army.

Harvey Kelly was commanding the 4/10 Baluch .This battalion moved to Chinari from Abbottabad on 22 May 1948 and joined the 101 Infantry Brigade.

In middle of June 1948 Harvey Kellys battalion was tasked to capture Pandu.Harvey Kelly made a bold plan involving infiltration.Pandu comprised of two high mountain features point 6873 being 6873 feet high and main Pandu massif which was 9178 feet high.

Harvey Kelly devoted himself to reconnaisance and planning and his final plan titled "Jehad" was ready by 17 July 1948.Ironically on the same day Lieutenant Colonel Harvey Kelly received the orders to report back to the army headquarters as the British Commander in chief Gracey had taken a policy decision to withdraw all British officers.

Command of 4/10 Baluch was assumed by Lieutenant Colonel Malik Sher Bahadur ex Rajputan Rifles.

Pandu was captured as per Harvey Kellys plan on 24 July 1948.


In the aftermath of partition, a huge population exchange occurred between the two newly formed states. About 14.5 million people crossed the borders, including 8,226,000 Muslims who came to Pakistan from India while 7,249,000 Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan. About 5.5 million settled in Punjab, Pakistan and around 1.5 million settled in Sindh.

Delhi received the largest number of refugees for a single city – the population of Delhi grew rapidly in 1947 from under 1 million (917.939) to a little less than 2 million (1.744.072) between the period 1941–1951.[21] The refugees were housed in various historical and military locations such as the Purana Qila, Red Fort, and military barracks in Kingsway (around the present Delhi university). The latter became the site of one of the largest refugee camps in northern India with more than 35,000 refugees at any given time besides Kurukshetra camp near Panipat.

 There was a complete breakdown of law and order; many died in riots, massacre, or just from the hardships of their flight to safety. What ensued was one of the largest population movements in recorded history. According to Richard Symonds: At the lowest estimate, half a million people perished and twelve million became homeless.[15]



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