Josef Mengele - The Angel of Death

JOSEF Mengele

Born: 16/03/1911, Günzburg, Germany
Membership: Karl and Walburga Mengele Mengele
Marriage: Irene Schoenbein (07/1939); son, Rolf (3/11/1944), divorce (1954)
Died: 07/02/1979, beach Bertioga, Embu, São Paulo, Brazil (supposedly)

Doctor known as "Angel of Death" at Auschwitz concentration camp (where he gets to 30/05/1943), by their experiences; captured (1945), escapes to Argentina (1949).

Josef Mengele was a German physician who also served during the Nazi regime. Mengele's nickname was Beppo, but he was known as Todesengel, "The Angel of Death", in a concentration camp.

Mengele was the chief medical officer of the main infirmary camp at Birkenau, which was part of the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex. However, there was the chief medical officer at Auschwitz, was higher in the hierarchy doctors and Hilario Hubrichzeinen Eduard Wirths. At the end of World War II Josef Mengele fled Germany through some countries, to find acceptance in Argentina, where he remained some time.

The atrocities of Mengele

In their experiments at Auschwitz, he injected blue dye into the eyes of children, joined the veins of twins, let people in tanks of ice water to test their resistance, amputated limbs of prisoners and collected thousands of bodies in his laboratory.
From 1943, the twins were selected and placed in special barracks. When the selection ramp located twins, the brothers were placed in a special room and were treated better than other inmates. Almost all of Mengele's experiments lacked scientific value, but were supported by the Nazi government. There was, for example, attempts to change eye color by injections of chemicals into the eyes of children, various amputations and other brutal surgeries, and at least one occasion, an attempt to create artificially conjoined by the union of veins of twin brothers ( the operation was a failure and the only result was that the hands of severely infected patients). People object Mengele's experiments, if they survived, were often killed for dissection later.

Block 10 in Auschwitz where Mengele performed their experiences.

In cooperation with other doctors, Mengele also tried to find a method of mass sterilization, many of the victims were women who injected various substances, many of them collapsing or becoming sterile in other cases.
Mengele experimented with gypsies and Jews who had hereditary diseases such as dwarfism, Down syndrome, Siamese twins and other diseases and dissected alive some people of mixed race, then submerging their bodies in a tub of liquid consumed the meat, leaving free the bones. The skeletons were sent to Berlin as a showcase for grisly physical degeneration of the Jews or others.
Sometimes the torture sessions performed by submerging prisoners in water ice strong enough to observe their reactions against hypothermia. It also cooperated with the equivalent of the Air Force, the doctor Sigmund Rascher's Luftwaffe, in some experiments in which persons subjected to extreme pressure changes, and individuals died with horrible convulsions from excessive pressure. Rascher was the equivalent of Mengele's experimentation on humans, but for military purposes. His wickedness was consistent with that of Mengele, but its history and final were very different.
Because of the atrocities committed by him during the war, his doctoral degree has been revoked by the Universities of Frankfurt and Munich.
Mengele did at one time a railroad car carrying coffins with the prisoners noticed "too heavy for its size." The coffins were bound for Günzburg and some prisoners correctly deduced that contained gold ingots, dental extractions from the victims of the field. This was one of the first evidence that Mengele had envisioned the end of Nazi Germany.

Request for examination: only documentary evidence against Dr. Mengele

The avoidance

On November 26, 1944, Richard Baer, ​​commandant of Auschwitz, received a strange order to dismantle the plant, decreasing the rate of extermination of the field. The order came directly from Adolf Hitler (who later committed suicide), and many a surprise situation.
Only 23 days before Mengele had been in the selection of prisoners to send to the gas chambers. For him the order is not unexpected, for he was convinced that Nazi Germany would lose the war.
Mengele covertly left the field on January 17, 1945, and 10 days after the Red Army arrived in the camp and freed the few survivors.
Josef Mengele left Auschwitz and went to the former concentration camp of Gross-Rosen. In August 1944 this field was closed. In April 1945 he fled westward disguised as a member of the German regular infantry, under a false identity, but was captured.
As a prisoner of war, served time in prison near Nuremberg. He was released later, when his identity was unknown. During the Nuremberg trials did not mention Josef Mengele as genocide.
It is known that fled to Argentina, probably still in the 1940s.

The house we occupied in Hohenhau Mengele in Paraguay.

However, with the capture of Adolf Eichmann by Mossad agents in Buenos Aires, Argentina Mengele decided to flee and hid in Paraguay before moving to Brazil, where he lived in Black Mountain, Assisi, New Europe, and Mogi das Cruzes Bertioga in the state of Sao Paulo, until his death.
Incredibly, neither the Mossad nor the Simon Wiesenthal Center were able to locate him despite his son Rolf having visited twice and to correspond with him.
It is now known that in Brazil lived modestly in a slum under the assumed name of Peter Gerhard. When asked the past, said that as German officer was limited to selecting people able to work and never killed anyone.
In 1979, his health was deteriorating and frank German family who watched invited him to freshen up on a beach drop too soft, Bertioga, the São Paulo coast, Mengele accepted. While some members were introduced into the water, Mengele followed them to reach a distance of 100 m, but the sparse depth. Then, for reasons never clarified and confused, drowned, although one of the friends who accompanied him immediately have given aid (it was supposed to cramps, heart attack, etc.., Or even suicide).
The official version is that it hurt, perhaps accidentally, with a piece of wood while swimming at Bertioga, and this caused his death by drowning. It is strange the fact that Mengele could not swim. His bones were exhumed in 1985 in Rosario cemetery in the town of Embu das Artes, in São Paulo. The expertise, conducted by experts from the IML and UNICAMP, the skeleton was determined that the Nazi doctor, who had a dental defect in the upper front teeth has been proven, and match in age and stature. In 1992, a DNA analysis finally confirmed his identity.


Josef Mengele and the twins

Josef Mengele was a Nazi scientist involved in a genetic program that had the task of creating a master race of Aryan peoples. Mengele's work, or the "Angel of Death" as it was called, was to find ways to increase the chances of a mother giving birth to twins. While working at the concentration camp at Auschwitz, Mengele did a series of brutal experiments on twins, most of them died with the results of surgery or infected wounds later.

One night, the angel of death put 14 pairs of twins to sleep in her room operations. He then injected chloroform directly into their hearts, killing them instantly and began to dissect them, taking notes on every piece of their bodies. Autopsies were an important part of Mengele's experiments.

In another bizarre experiment, he took a pair of twins Gypsies and sewed them together, the surgical removal of veins left them with gangrene. A twin who survived and was under the care of the doctor recalled that his brother came to lose his life;

"Dr. Mengele was always more interested in Tibi. Not sure why, perhaps because he was the older twin. Mengele did a number of operations in Tibi. One surgery on his spine left my brother paralyzed. He could not walk anymore. Then they took their sexual organs. After the fourth operation, I did not see the Tibi. I can not tell you how I felt. It is impossible to put into words what I felt. They had taken my father, my mother, my two older brothers and now, my twin brother. "

Twins of Auschwitz were housed in rooms more comfortable than the other prisoners were better fed and were saved from the gas chambers. Mengele was presented to the twins as "Uncle Mengele" and gave them candy. Most records maintained by Mengele were lost or destroyed after the war, so that the extent of their atrocities will never be known. It is known however that during World War II, nearly 3,000 twins went to Auschwitz, but only about 52 of them would get out of there alive.

After the war, Mengele escaped from Germany after receiving a false identity of innocent Red Cross workers who supplied documents for thousands of refugees. He first fled to Argentina and then ran through South America in an attempt to avoid capture and trial of war crimes. It is believed he may have continued his genetic experiments in Brazil in the 1960s. That's because the city of Rio Grande do Sul Candido Godoy, one in five pregnancies result in twins, most of them blond and blue eyes.

Annual gathering of twins in Godoi (RS) / Brazil

Residents claim that Mengele visited the town on several occasions and offered medical treatment for women. Usually, twins are born every eighty pregnancies, it seems that in Candido Godoy, Josef Mengele was able to achieve her dream of creating what he believed to be a superior race.

Below a piece of matter in the Telegraph :

"Camarasa talked to the people of Candido Godoy, the majority of German descent, and many reported that an educated German who presented himself as Rudolf Weiss, and was a specialist in reproduction, passed by the city in the 1960s, shortly before the appearance of twins in series. This man, in the city that many believe was Mengele, attended women, followed pregnancies and prescribed medication. There is an occurrence of twin births in the five Candido Godoy, well above the average of a birth of twins every 80 deliveries. "

Biography: Mengele: the Angel of Death in South America

Mengele's research on differences in color between the eyes twin teenagers gypsies

Roma children victims of medical experiments of Josef Mengele. Reperem legs, arms, and face the 1st left. The 3rd from right to left it with a genital organ unusual for a child. Mengele was castramentos, bone transplants and members, which may have occurred with the boy.

The Nazis performed medical experiments on prisoners absurd concentration camps in order to promote the belief of "Aryan superiority" of the Germans. There have been cases of doctors violate bullet wounds to the prisoners, the deliberate infection of prisoners with typhus and other diseases of the battlefield, exposure of prisoners to freezing temperatures for extended periods, and openly support the Nazi ideology in defense the elimination of homosexuals, the sterilization of Jews and other undesirable actions. Other experiments included forcing risioneiros Nazis to drink sea water or breathing polluted air for long periods of time, promote new techniques make spaying and bone transplants and limbs.

Posner offers a chilling testimony concerning Mengele's research on differences in eye color between twins teenage Gypsies, illustrating the extent of his cruelty:

"... In the workroom near the dissecting room, 14 gypsy twins were waiting and crying. Dr. Mengele directed us not a single word and prepared a syringe of 10 cc and the other 15. A box, Mengele took Evipal and another, chloroform, which was in containers of 20 cubic centimeters, putting everything Namesa operation. After addition, the first twin was brought ... a girl of fourteen years. Dr. Mengele ordered to undress the child and put her head on the dissecting table. So Evipal injected intravenously in the right arm of the girl. After she fell asleep, he felt the left ventricle of the heart and injected ten centimeters cubic chloroform. After one small convulsion, the child was dead ... this way every 14 adolescents were killed ... ".

Mengele ... then removed the eyes of all twins dead and sent to Berlin for future studies ... "

Despite fifteen Nazi doctors were tried and sentenced at Nuremberg, Joseph Mengele, the most notable clinical Nazi Germany, escapou.E lived until his supposed death in Brazil.

Sources: Procter, R. 1992. Nazi Doctors, Racial Medicine, and Human Experimentation. In The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code. Annas, G. & Grodin, M., eds. New York. Oxford University Press: 17-31.
Schüklenk, U. Protecting the Vulnerable: Testing Times for Clinical Research Ethics. Social Science and Medicine 2000, 51: 969-977. Available at: (accessed 19/09/2003).

Gypsy Holocaust

Roma children victims of medical experiments at Auschwitz - Auschwitz Museum - Poland

When you hear about the Nazi concentration camps, it is expected soon to be martyred Jews in Auschwitz, Dachau and other camps. But there were other victims. And among them, the gypsies. Since 1933, the Nazi press began to emphasize that Gypsies and Jews were alien races, inferior, and that Europe would be contaminated as a foreign body. Drawing on a historical mistrust in relation to Roma, it was possible to justify a series of harsh measures against these people, including a policy of extermination. The first cry of alarm to the official Gypsy world was heard on 17 October 1939 When Heydrich (1), forbade them to leave their camps and began his move to Poland. Most transferred over the camp at Dachau, framed as "asocial elements." In November of 1941 in Europe echoed the slogan: "After the Jews, Gypsies!" and December 24, 1941, an order reserved for all SS, claimed that the Gypsies were doubly dangerous, both for diseases they carry and by their disability. The order concludes that the Gypsies should be treated with the same rigor applied to the Jews. In a police report, dated August 25, 1942, reads, among other things relating to Gypsy, "it is therefore essential to completely eradicate this gang without hesitation. " But since 1941, when it created the Einsatzgruppen (execution squads), deportation and extermination of gypsies were already being practiced. In October 1941, arrived in Lodz (Poland), 5000 Gypsies, including over 2,600 children. All were admitted for family groups. The testimonies tell us that the tents were broken windows, while the winter was extremely hard. In the field there was no hygienic measures, or medical assistance. Two weeks after his arrival, a typhus epidemic broke out that killed more than 6oo adults and children. Between March and April 1942, the survivors were deported to Chelmo, and there murdered in gas chambers. From then until 1945, multiply the witness: collective massacres, individual deaths, torture of all kinds, chemical experiments and medical of the most cruel. And all these cruelties occurred in several concentration camps: Auschwitz, Birkenau, Mauthausen, Rabensbruch, Buchenwald, Chelmo, Lodz, Dachau, and Sachsenhausen Lackenbach. Gypsies were sent to Auschwitz from all over, until German soldiers on leave from the military front, some of them decorated for bravery in combat, whose only crime was to have "gypsy" in his veins. Particularly impressive are the testimony about the transfer of children from Buchenwald to Auschwitz. Roma children were from Bohemia, the Carpathians, Croatia, in northeast France, southern Poland and Ruthenia. Barbara Richter, gypsy girl, and deposes: "Even the most addicted prisoners to these horrors felt great sadness when they realized that SS went out one by one the little Jews and gypsies, bringing them together into one flock. The children cried and screamed, frantically trying to get back into the arms of their parents or the guards that they had found among the prisoners, but surrounded by a circle of guns and machine guns were taken off the field and sent to Auschwitz, where he would die in the gas chambers. " Due to abuse and poor sanitary conditions, "children's skin was filled with infectious wounds. They suffered from stomatitis cancrenosa ... leprosy seemed ... their little bodies were falling apart, mouths opened amazing cheeks, and inside you could see the slow decay of the flesh. " Only in Auschwitz, Gypsies were 20,933 enrolled, including 360 children born in the field concentration, and lived long enough to receive registration number. To these we must add more than 1,700 Gypsies sent to the gas chamber, once they arrived in March 1943 and that had not yet received the registration number. In a single day (May 29, 1943), 102 Gypsies were dragged out of their premises and taken to the gas chamber. These testimonies also narrate the killing of four thousand Gypsies in early August 1944: "The siren announced a principle of a strict curfew. trucks arrived at around 20 h. Gypsies had predicted what was to happen, but the Germans did their best to confuse the ideas: to leave the camps, Roma received a ration bread and salami, and so many believed that it would simply transfer to another field. Then a squad of SS, armed and aided by dogs, broke camp and fell against women, children and elders. A boy Czech pleaded shouting: 'I beg you, sir SS, let me live! `. The only response we had were the blows of baton. Finally, they were all thrown in heaps, in the truck and taken to the crematorium." (Kraus and Kulka). "There were heartbreaking scenes: women and children knelt in front of Mengele (2) and Borger (3), crying, 'Mercy! Have mercy on us!' In vain. were killed with rifle butts, trampled, dragged the truck, driven by force. It was a horrible night, hallucinating. In the truck were thrown which also had died under the blows of a club. trucks arrived at the pack of bodies around 22:30 and isolation around 23hs. The SS and four prisoners brought out the sick, but also 25 women in perfect health, alone with their children " (Aldesberger, p.112-13). "Around 23hs other trucks arrived outside the hospital, placed in one truck about 50 to 60 prisoners and that's got to the gas chamber. I heard the cries until the wee hours, and realized that some tried to resist. Gypsies protested, shouting and fighting until dawn ... They tried to sell life at a high price. " (Dromonski, the process by Auscwitz). "Then Gober and others went through the rooms one by one taking away the children who had been hiding. Minors were dragged to the feet of Boger, who clung the leg and threw them against the wall ... I saw this gesture is repeating some five, six and seven times " (Langhein). estimates closer to speak in half a million Gypsies dead, but it is known that these data are lower than actual figures, since many were killed before they were enrolled. In his book "Germany and Genocide," the historian Joseph Billig distinguishes three types of genocide: by eliminating the ability to procreate, for deportation and extermination. In the hospital of Dusseldorf-Lierenfeld were sterilized gypsy married non-Gypsies, some of whom have died because they were pregnant. In Ravensbruck doctors sterilized 120 SS Roma girls. An example of the second type of genocide was the deportation of 5,000 Gypsies from Germany to the Lodz ghetto in Poland. The living conditions there were so inhumane that anyone survived. old people, but prolific and full of vitality, Gypsies tried to resist death, but the cruelty and the power of his enemies to his courage prevailed. The love of music served them for solace in times of martyrdom. Hungry and covered with lice, they gathered in front of the hideous barracks of Auschwitz to play music, encouraging children to dance. There are witnesses to the courage of the Roma who militated in the Polish resistance in the region of Nieswiez. According to them, the soldiers threw themselves on Gypsies heavily armed enemy wielding only a knife. As Myriam Novitch, director of the Ghetto Fighters' Museum, "is after many years since the genocide of the Gypsies. It is time to denounce this abominable crime . " Notes: (1) - Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich, the Sicherheitsdienst SD - Security Service of the SS, Protektor of Bohemia and Moravia (former Czechoslovakia), where he received the nickname "Butcher of Prague". (2) - Josef Mengele, chief doctor of the main infirmary camp at Birkenau, which was part of the Auschwitz-Birkenau complex, known as "Todesengel" (the Angel of Death). (3) - Wilhelm Boger, SS-Oberscharfuhrer. Sources: * Myriam Novitch - Gypsies and the Nazi terror * Ota Kraus and Erich Kulka - The death factory: documents on Auschwitz - 1946. * Lucie Adelsberger - Auschwitz: A Doctor's Story - Boston, Northeastern University Press. 2006. ISBN: 9781555536596.

Experiments Nazis - The Horror unlimited

Researchers sa on physical malformations by SS Dr. Josef Mengele. Note to the body of children used as guinea pigs.

The Nazi human experiments were a series of controversial scientific experiments conducted in a large number of human subjects who were detained in concentration camps of the Nazi regime during World War II. The prisoners were coerced into participating: not being willing volunteers. Typically, the experiments resulted in death, disfigurement or permanent disability. In Auschwitz and other camps, under the direction of Dr. Eduard Wirths, the detainees were subjected to various experiments that supposedly would help in the war, developing new weapons, helping in the recovery of the military who had been wounded, and to advance the racial ideology backed the Third Reich. After the war, crimes were judged by what became known as the Judgment of Physicians, the revolt of abuses led to the development of the code of medical ethics in Nuremberg.


According to the indictment, in Proceedings of the Nuremberg War were included in the following experiments:
Experiences with twins

Experiments with twins, in concentration camps were created to show the similarities and differences in genetics and eugenics of twins, as well as to see if the human body can be manipulated. The central leader of the experiments was Dr. Josef Mengele, who performed experiments with more than 1,500 prisoners twins together, of which fewer than 200 individuals survived the studies. Although to attend the University of Munich (located in the city remained a focal point during the revolution of Adolf Hitler), studying philosophy and medicine, with emphasis on anthropology and paleontology, Mengele was swept away by the concepts of Nazi history and went on to say "this simple political concept finally became the decisive factor in my life." The recent discovery of Mengele's "simple political concept" led him to merge his medical studies and his political career. Mengele received his doctorate for a thesis entitled "Racial Morphological Research on the lower section of the jaw of four racial groups," which suggested that the race of a person could be identified by the shape of the jaw. The Nazi organization saw his studies as talented, and Mengele was asked to be the leading physician and researcher at Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland in May 1943.

In this place Mengele organized genetic experiments on twins. The twins were matched for age and sex and kept in barracks in the experiments, which ranged from injection of different chemicals into the eyes of twins to see if they would change their colors, and also literally sewing twins together to try to create twins Siamese.

Experiments on Freezing

In 1941, the Luftwaffe conducted experiments to learn how to treat hypothermia. The study People forced to stay in a tank of cold water for three hours. Other study placed prisoners naked in the open for several hours with temperatures below zero. The experimenters assessed different ways of rewarming survivors.
Experiments on freezing / hypothermia were conducted for the Nazi high command. The experiments were conducted on men to simulate the conditions the armies suffered on the Eastern Front, and as German forces were ill prepared for the intense cold.
The experiments were conducted at Dachau and Auschwitz. Rascher notifying the results directly to Heinrich Himmler, and publicized the results of his experiments on the freezing of the 1942 medical conference entitled "Medical Problems arising from the sea and winter."
The freezing experiments were divided into two parts. First, to determine how long it would take to lower the body temperature to death, and second, how best to resuscitate the frozen victim. ice cube method proved to be the fastest way to a drop in body temperature. The selections for the experiments were made between healthy young Jews and Russians. They were naked and prepared for the experiment. A probe which measures the decrease in body temperature was inserted into the rectum. The tube was held in place by an expandable metal ring, that is set to open into the rectum to hold the probe securely in place. The victim was placed in an air force uniform, and then placed in the pool of cold water and began to freeze.

Frozen human guinea pigs by Professor Sigismund Rascher, the direita.Primeiro the prisoner was placed in cold water alive, and induced him to freeze. These experiments were done in Dachau. Rascher set up a framework for studying the effects of low water temperature in humans, in order to revive Airmen who fall into the ocean. Dachau prisoners are immersed in tank water ice until they become unconscious, then extract the medical blood samples that are tested each time the test subject's body temperature falls degree - measurement is performed with the aid of a thermometer rectum. After removal of the individual tank, attempts are made ​​to resuscitation with hot water, electrical or heat animal, for this last test, the human body unconscious is placed between the two trapped. Very few survive; these, however, are sent to the block of invalid and then executed.

Experiments on Malaria

Around February 1942 and April 1945, experiments were performed at the Dachau concentration camp, in order to investigate immunization for treatment of malaria. Healthy inmates were infected by mosquitoes or by injections of extracts of the mucous glands of infected female mosquitoes. After contracting the disease, these people were treated with various drugs to test their relative efficiency. More than 1,000 people were employed in these experiments, and of these, over half died as a result.

Experiments on mustard gas

Several times between September 1939 and April 1945, experiments were conducted at Sachsenhausen, Natzweiler, and other fields to investigate the most effective treatment of wounds caused by mustard gas. People were deliberately exposed to mustard gas and other gases, which caused severe chemical burns. Victims wounds were then tested to find the most effective treatment for burns of mustard gas.

Experiments on sulfonamide
Around July 1942 and September 1943 experiments to investigate the effectiveness of sulfonamide, a synthetic antimicrobial agent, were conducted at Ravensbrück. Individuals were infected with bacteria such as Streptococcus, gas gangrene, and Clostridium tetani (which causes tetanus). The blood flow was interrupted because of wounds were made in blood vessels at both ends to create a condition similar to the wounds of a battlefield. Infection was aggravated by being placed after quantities of wood and frosted glass in wounds. The sulfonamide was treated with infection and other drugs to determine their effectiveness thereof.

Nazi doctors were cutting slices to open the leg (pictured at Ravensbruck camp survivor, Jadwiga Dzido) and deliberately infecting the wound with bacteria, dirt and splinters of glass to simulate a battle wound. Then, treated the wound with sulfanilamide drugs.

 Experiments on the sea water

Around July 1944 and September 1944, experiments were performed at the Dachau concentration camp to study various methods of making sea water drinkable. At one point, a group of about 90 gypsies were deprived of food and water being given to drink only water from the sea by Dr. Hans Eppinger, leaving them seriously injured. They were so dehydrated, licking newly washed floors in an attempt to obtain potable water.

Experiments on sterilization

Around March 1941 and January 1945 were conducted sterilization experiments on Auschwitz, Ravensbrück, and other places by Dr. Carl Clauberg. The goal of these experiments was to develop a sterilization method that would be suitable for sterilizing millions of people with the least possible time and effort. These experiments were carried out by X-ray, surgery, and various drugs. Thousands of victims were sterilized. In these experiments, the Nazi government sterilized around 400,000 people, as part of its program of compulsory sterilization. It is speculated that intravenous injections were used to contain iodine and silver nitrate and were successful, but have unwanted side effects such as vaginal bleeding, severe abdominal pain and cervical cancer. However, the radiation treatment was favored to sterilization. The radiation exposure of humans destroying their ability to produce eggs or sperm. Radiation was delivered to fool the prisoners, they were taken to a room and were asked to fill out forms, which took two to three minutes. Some sections were subjected to X-ray, more in fact were being exposed to radiation. Radiation treatment was administered without the knowledge of the prisoners, making them completely infertile. Many suffered severe radiation burns.

Experiments with typhoid

In December 1941 until February 1945, experiments were conducted to investigate the ineffectiveness of the points with a fever and other vaccines. In Buchenwald, a lot of healthy inmates were deliberately infected with typhus bacteria to keep the bacteria alive, More than 90% of the victims died. Other inmates healthy volunteers were used to determine the ineffectiveness of vaccines and a number of different chemicals. During these experiments, 75% of inmates were vaccinated or fed one of the chemicals and, after a period of three to four weeks, were infected with germs of fever with points. The remaining 25% were infected without prior protection to compare the ineffectiveness of vaccines and chemicals. Hundreds of individuals died. Was also performed experiments with yellow fever, smallpox, typhoid, paratyphoid A and B, cholera and diphtheria. Similar experiments were performed with similar results in Natzweiler.

Experiments with poison

Around December 1943 and October 1944, experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to investigate the effect of different poisons. The venoms were administered secretly in feeding individuals. The victims had died as a result of poisoning or were sacrificed immediately to allow for autopsy. In September 1944, poisonous bullets were fired against the prisoners, that after the torture, died. Experiments with Incendiary Bombs Around November 1943 and January 1944, experiments were conducted at Buchenwald to test the effect of various pharmaceutical preparations of phosphorus . These burns were inflicted on prisoners of phosphorus incendiary bombs. Experiments of high altitudes

In early 1942, prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp were used by Rascher in experiments with German pilots, who ejected at high altitudes. The low pressure containing these prisoners was used to simulate conditions at altitudes up to 20 km (66,000 feet). It was rumored that Rascher performed vissecções in the brains of victims who sobreviam the initial experiment. Of the 200 victims, 80 died in the experiments, and the others were executed.

Prisionero exposed to high altitude and high pressure induced. In the 2nd photo he is in agony before he died because of pressure on your body. It is a type experiment for the benefit of the Luftwaffe.

Question of Medical Ethics

Many people died as a result of experiments carried out by the Nazis, while many others were murdered after the tests have been completed, or to study the effect of experience on autopsy. Those who survived were often left crippled, with permanent disabilities, frail bodies and psychological problems.
On August 19, 1947, doctors were captured by the Allies, and brought to the process known as USA vs. Karl Brandt et. al., commonly known as the Doctors Trial. At trial, several of the doctors claimed in his defense that there was no international law regarding medical experimentation.
However, the German medicine and discussion involving informed consent, prior to World War II. In 1900, Dr. Albert Neisser infected patients (mostly prostitutes) with syphilis without their consent. Despite the support of most of the academic community, public opinion led by psychiatrist Albert Moll was against Neisser. While Neisser was fined by the Royal Disciplinary Court, Moll developed "a theory of a positivist legal contract of the doctor-patient", which was not adopted into German law. Eventually, the minister of religious rights, educational and medical affairs said that medical interventions that are not for diagnostic, curative and immunization should be excluded in all circumstances, and the patient should be informed about the possible negative consequences of the experience which would. However, this was not legally binding.
In response to the absence of regulations of the relationship between patient and doctor, Dr. Leo Alexander and Andrew Conway Ivy drafted a ten-point memorandum entitled "Medical Experiments Allowed" which became known as the Nuremberg Code. The Code states that experiments should be performed only with the consent of patients, which should not cause unnecessary pain and suffering, and there must be certain that the trial will not result in death or disability. However, the Code was not mentioned in any of the charges against the defendants and never became law, both in Germany and the United States.
The modern medical knowledge about how the human body reacts to freezing to death relies almost exclusively in those Nazi experiments. This, together with the recent use of Nazi research data of the effects of phosgene gas, proved to be controversial and presents an ethical dilemma for modern medicine who do not agree with the methods used to obtain these data. Similarly, a controversy arose from the use of results of biological warfare made by the Japanese Imperial Army Unit 731. However, the results of Unit 731 were maintained by the United States and most of the doctors involved were pardoned.


Biological experiments Nazis

Room scientific experiment with human physician Josef Mengele Nazi executioner.

Biological Experiments

The doctors worked with the agents of the SS in Nazi extermination promoted by the state, acting as biological soldiers. At the time were much in evidence the thesis on eugenics, the science of the conditions most conducive to "improve" the human race. It was in her name to the Nazi doctors committed numerous atrocities. For the Nazis were not the social problems such as economic and social needs that caused the marginalization of non-Aryans. In contrast, congenital "racial inferiority" of these individuals is that created such problems. Thus, the executions defined as a humanitarian, merciful, for those "convicted by natural selection." As for the good health Nazi medicine was characteristic of Aryan racial superiority, it should be maintained at any cost. Therefore, from 1933 until the beginning of the war the Germans considered "incurables" were submitted to sterilization for the "evil" was not carrying proliferated. Among the "incurables" who were sterilized were, as reported by Robert Lifton in The Nazi Doctors, "60,000 epileptics, 4000 blind hereditary, hereditary 16,000 deaf, 20,000 people with malformations in the body, 10 000 with alcoholism hereditary, 200,000 mentally ill, 80 000 20 000 schizophrenics and manic-depressive. " Lifton in his book cites the case of the physician Eduard Wirths, Auschwitz, who inoculated the typhoid bacillus in healthy Jews, on the grounds that they, of course doomed to die, could serve as guinea pigs for testing vaccines. Many died in "medical experiments" that included exposure to high pressure freezing. To enhance the character of the doctor plays often an ambulance painted with the colors of the Red Cross accompanied the killings