History of Letterform Design in India-2600 B.C.-1800 A.D.

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History of Letterform Design in India

Early History 2600 BC to 1800 AD:

Indus Valley Script - 2600BC:
2600-1900 BC
 Writings from Indus Valley civilisation

The earliest script in India so far known is the Indus
Valley pictographic script. Over 4000 symbol bearing seals have been discovered in the Indus Valley.

2600-1900 BC
 Writings from Indus Valley civilisation

Another seal from the Indus Valley
- the Harappan signs are associated with flat, rectangular stone tablets called seals

2600-1900 BC

Indus valley script

The script of Mohen-jo-daro and Harappa is called Proto-Indian. The script appears to be phonetic and has ideographic origin. The specimen are all in the form of seals.
The deciphering of the script
 is still being done.

2600-1900 BC

Indus valley script

Indus Script it is said to be the
 ancestor of the both, the secular Brahmi as well as the traditional vernacular scripts of India. (This theory is still being debated)

Chart showing the development of Devanagari Letters from Indus script

Oral Tradition:Even though the system of writing was known, the preservation of knowledge was mainly done through an oral tradition - this was because oral means was believed to be better than writing in terms of capturing the expressions and meanings of language. 

 Ref:  The Book in India, edited by B. S. Kesavan, National Book Trust India, N Delhi, 1986

Scribe Recording

Perhaps this seems to be the earliest record of writing showing a scribe (on the left bottom corner) recording the event happennings in the courtroom of King Suddhodana.

Ashoka and the Brahmi Script - 3rd Century BC:

3rd Century BC

 Brahmi Inscription

Asoka Edict on the Rummindei pillar
Brahmi, the script of the brahmans is written from left to right. It is the mother of all Indian scripts including the Devanagari script.
-Ashoka used this script for his inscriptions, carved into the face of rocks or on stone pillars

3rd Century BC

 Brahmi Inscription

Fragment of the 6th Pillar Edict of Ashoka (238 BCE), inBrahmi, sandstone

3rd Century BC

 Kharoshthi inscription derived from brahmi script

Rock Edict at habazgarhi
Kharoshthi or Zarthustri, the script of the clerks is written from right to left

 another example of Kharoshthi inscription:

3rd Century BC

 Girnar Inscription, Brahmi

Ashoka's First Rock inscription at Girnar
These inscriptions on rocks and pillars, proclaim Asoka's reforms and policies and promulgate his advice to his subjects.

3rd Century BC

 Simplified Brahmi

This are the basic forms of the letters of Brahmi Script

3rd Century BC to 12th Century

 Brahmi Development

This chart depicts the development of other scripts from the brahmi script

Ashoka to 14th Century - development of Brahmi Script:

3rd Century BC to 540AD

 Brahmi Variations

These are the variations of the Brahmi Script

2nd Century BC

 Barahut stupa, Brahmi Inscription:

The stupa contains numerous birth stories of the Buddha's previous lives, or Jataka tales.

1st Century BC
 Phabosa Inscription, Brahmi:

Inscriptions from the temple of Parisnath at Phabosa

4th Century AD

Allahabad Pillar Inscription:

The stupa 
is belongs to Samudragupta, Gupta Script


5th Century AD

Siddham Letter 'a' :

The siddham letterforms have been used for meditative purposes. These are a varient of the Brahmi script.

992 AD
 Deval Inscription, Brahmi:

Inscription by King Lulla, Nagari Lipi, 992 A.D.
 Ref:  The Book in India, edited by B. S. Kesavan, National Book Trust India, N Delhi, 1986

11th CentuaryAD

 Tamil manuscripts

Tamil inscription, from the Brihadisvara temple inThanjavur

12 Centuary AD
 Ratnapur Inscription, Brahmi:

Inscription by King Jajalladev, Nagari Lipi, 12th Century A.D.

1337 AD
 Telgu-kannada script:

Donepundi Grant-deed of Namaya-Nayak,
1337 A.D.

1400 AD
 Nandi Nagari Incription from Vijaynagar

14th Centuary AD
Veeraraghava Grant-deed Vettelulu Lipi,


Sanskrit alphabet el.png

This chart shows the modern descendants of the ancient Brahmi script.
- Brahmi seems ancestral to most of the scripts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, some Central Asian scripts like Tibetan and Khotanese, and possibly Korean hangul (1444 AD).