Slavery in India ,Africa,America{&,ANCIENT ROMAN AND EGYPTIAN EMPIRES}

The Slave Trade: Early Roots in Britain

In 1562 John Hawkins, an English navigator, seeing the want of slaves in the West Indies, determined to enter upon the piratical traffic. Several London gentlemen contributed funds liberally for the enterprise. Three ships were provided, and with these and 100 men Hawkins sailed to the coast of Guinea, where, by bribery, deception, treachery, and force, he procured at least 300 negroes and sold them to the Spaniards in Hispaniola, or Santo Domingo, and returned to England with a rich freight of pearls, sugar, and ginger. The nation was shocked by the barbarous traffic, and the Queen (Elizabeth) declared to Hawkins that, " if any of the Africans were carried away without their own consent, it would be detestable, and call down the vengeance of Heaven upon the undertakers." He satisfied the Queen and continued the traffic, pretending that it was for the good of the souls of the Africans, as it introduced them to Christianity and civilization.
Already negro slaves had been introduced by the Spaniards into the West Indies. They first enslaved the natives, but these were unequal to the required toil, and they were soon almost extinguished by hard labor and cruelty. Charles V. of Spain granted a license to a Fleming to import 4,000 negroes annually into the West Indies. He sold his license to Genoese merchants, who began a regular trade in human beings between Africa and the West Indies. These were found to thrive where the native laborers died. The benevolent Las Casas and others favored the system as a means for saving the Indian tribes from destruction; and the trade was going on briskly when the English, under the influence of Hawkins, engaged in it in 1562. Ten years before a few negroes had been sold in England, and it is said that Queen Elizabeth's scruples were so far removed that she shared in the profits of the traffic carried on by Englishmen. The Stuart kings of England chartered companies for the trade; and Charles II. and his brother James were members of one of them.
After the revolution of 1688 the trade was thrown open, and in 1713 an English company obtained the privilege of supplying the Spanish colonies in America, South and Central, for thirty years, stipulating to deliver 144,000 negro slaves within that period. One quarter of the stock of the company was taken by King Philip V. of Spain, and Queen Anne of England reserved for herself the other quarter. So the two monarchs became great slave-dealers.

Slavery Comes to America

The first slaves were introduced into the English-American colonies by a Dutch trader, who, in 1619, sold twenty of them to the settlers at Jamestown, Va. After that the trade between North America and Africa was carried on quite vigorously; but some of the colonies remonstrated, and in the Continental Congress, and also in the public mind, there was a strong desire evinced to abolish the slave-trade. Lawrence and Cassandra Southwick were banished from the colony of Massachusetts, in 1658, under penalty of death if they should return. Their crime was the embracing of the principles and mode of worship of the Quakers. Their two children remained behind in extreme poverty. They were fined for non-attendance upon the public worship carried on by their persecutors. The magistrates insisted that the fine must be paid, and passed the following order: " Whereas, Daniel Southwick and Provided Southwick, son and daughter of Lawrence Southwick, absenting themselves from the public ordinances, having been fined by the courts of Salem and Ipswich, pretending they have no estates, and resolving not to work, the court, upon perusal of a law which was made upon account of debts, in what should be done for the satisfaction of the fines, resolves, that the treasurers of the several counties are and shall be fully empowered to sell said persons to any of the English natives at Virginia or Barbadoes to answer the said fines." Endicott, it is said, urged the execution of the measure with vehemence; but, to the honor of the marine service, not a sea-captain in the port of Boston could be induced to become a slave-dealer to please the General Court. They were spared the usual brutal whipping of contumacious persons as a special mark of humanity.

Slaves for $

In 1662 the Virginia Assembly passed a law that children should be held, bond or free, " according to the condition of the mother." This was to meet the case of mulatto children, born of black mothers, in the colony. It was thought right to hold heathen Africans in slavery; but, as mulattoes must be part Christians, a knotty question came up, for the English law in relation to serfdom declared the condition of the child must be determined by that of the father. The Virginia law opposed this doctrine in favor of the slave-holders. Some of the negroes brought into Virginia were converted to Christianity and baptized. The question was raised, " Is it lawful to hold Christians as slaves ?" The General Assembly came to the relief of the slave-holders by enacting a law that slaves, though converted and baptized, should not therefore become free. It was also enacted that killing a slave by his master by " extreme correction " should not be esteemed a felony, since it might not be presumed that " malice prepense " would " induce any man to destroy his own estate." It was also enacted, as an evasion of the statute prohibiting the holding of Indians as slaves, " that all servants, not being Christians, imported by shipping, shall be slaves for life." Indian slaves, under this law, were imported from New England and the West Indies. Freed slaves were then subjected to civil disabilities.
A Slave Market


In 1663 the Maryland legislature enacted a law that " all negroes and other slaves within the province, and all negroes and other slaves to be thereafter imported into the province, should serve during life; and all children born of any negro should be slaves, as their fathers were, for the term of their lives." The same law recited that " divers free-born English-women, forgetful of their free condition, and to the disgrace of the nation, did intermarry with negro slaves," and it was enacted for deterring from such " shameful matches " that, during their husbands' lives, white women so intermarrying should be servants to the masters of their husbands, and that the issue of such marriages should be slaves for life.

Intermarriage Between Slave and Free

In 1681 the legislature of Maryland passed a new act to remedy the evils of intermarrying of whites and blacks. The preamble recited that such matches were often brought about by the instigation or connivance of the master or mistress, who took advantage of the former law to prolong the servitude of their white feminine servants, and at the same time to raise up a brood of mulatto slaves. The new law enacted that all white feminine servants intermarrying with negro slaves were free, at once, after the nuptials, and their children also; and that the minister celebrating and the master or mistress promoting or conniving at such marriages were subjected to a fine of 10,000 pounds of tobacco.

Rules for Slaves

In 1682 the slave code of Virginia received additions. It was enacted that runaways who refused to be arrested might be lawfully killed. Slaves were forbidden to carry arms, offensive or defensive, or to go off the plantations of their masters without a written pass, or to lift a hand against a Christian, even in self-defense. The condition of slavery was imposed upon all servants, whether " negroes, Moors, mulattoes, or Indians, brought into the colony by sea or land, whether converted to Christianity or not, provided they were not of Christian parentage or country, or, if Turks or Moors, in amity with his Majesty." Nearly a century afterwards Virginia tried to suppress the traffic in African slaves, and in 1761 it was proposed in her legislature to suppress the importation of Africans by levying a prohibitory duty. Danger to the political interest of that colony was foreboded by her wisest men in the continuance of the trade. An act for levying the tax was passed by the Assembly, but in England it met the fate of similar bills from other colonies to suppress the nefarious traffic. It was sent back with a veto.

King George Orders That Slavery NOT be Abolished in the Colonies

The King in council, on Dec. 10, 1770, issued an instruction, under his own hand, commanding the governor of Virginia, " upon pain of the highest displeasure, to assent to no law by which the importation of slaves should be in any respect prohibited or obstructed." In 1772 the Virginia Assembly earnestly discussed the question, " How shall we get rid of the great evil?" Jefferson, Henry, Lee, and other leading men anxiously desired to rid the colony of it. " The interest of the country," it was said, " manifestly requires the total expulsion of them." The Assembly finally resolved to address the King himself on the subject, who, in council, had compelled the toleration of the traffic, They pleaded with him to remove all restraints upon their efforts to stop the importation of slaves, which they called " a very pernicious commerce." In this matter Virginia represented the sentiments of all the colonies, and the King knew it; but the monarch " stood in the path of humanity and made himself the pillar of the colonial slave-trade." Ashamed to reject the earnest and solemn appeal of the Virginians, he evaded a reply. The conduct of the King caused Jefferson to write as follows in his first draft of the Declaration of Independence: "He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, capturing and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur a miserable death in their transportation thither. This piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the Christian King of Great Britain. Determined to keep open a market where men should be bought and sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce." This paragraph was stricken out of the Declaration of Independence before the committee submitted it to a vote of the Congress.

Rationalizations for Slavery

The unwise regulations of the trustees of Georgia, which crushed incentives to industry and thrift, and other causes which exist in all new settlements, made that colony languish. The settlers saw the prosperity of their neighbors in South Carolina, and attributed the difference to the positive prohibition of slavery in Georgia. This became their leading grievance, and even Whitefield advocated the introduction of slavery, under the old (and later) pretence of propagating, in that way, Christianity among the heathen Africans. Habersham, too, advocated the introduction. " Many of the poor slaves in America," he wrote, " have already been made freemen of the heavenly Jerusalem." The Germans were assured by their friends in Germany of its harmlessness. Word came to them in 1749: " If you take slaves in faith and with the intent of conducting them to Christ, the action will not be a sin, but may prove a benediction." So it was that avarice subdued conscience. Already slaves had been introduced into Georgia from South Carolina as hired servants, under indentures for life, or for ninety-nine years; and at Savannah the continual toast was, " The one thing needful," which meant negro slaves. Leading men among the Scotch and Germans who opposed the introduction of slavery were threatened and persecuted. Under great pressure, the trustees yielded, and slavery was introduced on the condition that all masters should be obliged to compel the negroes to "attend, at some time on the Lord's day, for instruction in the Christian religion." In 1752 the charter was surrendered to the crown, the colony had all the privileges accorded to others, and flourished.
New Orleans Slave Auction

A Slave Auction in New Orleans

To completely enslave the English-American colonies, the British Parliament, in 1750, gave liberty to trade in negroes, as slaves, to and from any part of Africa between Sallee, in South Barbary, and the Cape of Good Hope, to all the subjects of the King of England. This was designed to fill the colonies with slaves, who should neither trouble Great Britain with fears of encouraging political independence nor compete with their industry with British workshops; neither would they leave their employers the entire security that might enable them to prepare a revolt.

Slavery Illegal in Britain

James Somerset, a negro slave of James Stewart, was taken from Virginia to England, where he refused to serve his master any longer. Stewart caused him to be arrested and put on board a vessel to be conveyed to Jamaica. Being brought before Chief-Justice Mansfield on a writ of habeas corpus (December, 1771), his case was referred to the full court, where it was argued for the slave by the great philanthropist, Granville Sharp. The decision would affect the estimated number of 14,000 slaves then with their masters in England, involving a loss to their owners of $3,500,000. After a careful judicial investigation of the subject in its legal aspects, Chief-Justice Mansfield gave the decision of the court that slavery was contrary to the laws of England—that slavery could not exist there. " Whatever inconveniences, therefore, may follow from the decision," he said, " I cannot say this case is allowed or approved by the law of England, and therefore the black must be discharged."

Old West 


African American Soldiers

*Select the thumbnail image to view larger versions and fuller information (if available) through the Prints & Photographs Online Catalog.
Co. E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry "Co. E, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Ft. Lincoln, defenses of Washington." (title from print). Shows 27 blacks in two lines with rifles resting on the ground. (Print marked "890.")
References: Image of War, Vol. 3, p. 235.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04294 (b&w copy scan of glass negative); LC-B8171-7890 (film negative); .
Call number:LC-B817-7890 (glass negative); LOT 4190F (photographic print)
Band of 107th U.S. Colored Infantry "Band of 107th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows a group of 20 black soldiers with musical instruments. (Marked "861.")
References: Image of War, Vol. 3, p. 240.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04279 (b&w copy scan of glass negative); LC-B8171-7861 (film negative).
Call number: LC-B817-7861 (glass negative); LOT 4190F
Bomb-proof quarters of Major Strong "Bomb-proof quarters of Major Strong at Dutch Gap, Va., July, 1864." Shows two black soldiers seated outside of quarters.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01926 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-01925 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative).
Call number: LOT 4166-F (Stereograph File); LC-B811-2551 (glass negative)
Chapin's Bluff, Virginia (vicinity). Fort Burnham, formerly, Confederate Fort Harrison, near James River "Chapin's Bluff, Virginia (vicinity). Fort Burnham, formerly, Confederate Fort Harrison, near James River"
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01950 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-01949 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative).
Call number: LOT 4166-I (Stereograph File); LC-B811-2565 (glass negative)
Captain J.M. Robertson and Staff, 1st Brigade Horse Artillery "Captain J.M. Robertson and Staff, 1st Brigade Horse Artillery, Brandy Station, Va., February, 1864." Shows uniformed blacks in back of white officers.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04044 (b&w copy scan)
Call number: LOT 4171
Execution of colored soldier, William Johnson "Execution of colored soldier (William Johnson), Petersburg, Va., June 20, 1864." Shows hanging man alone. (The charge on which he was convicted was attempted rape.)
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-00383 (b&w copy scan of negative); LC-USZ62-49608 (film copy negative of print)
Call number:LC-B815-789 (glass negative); LOT 4172 (photographic print)
Field Hospital at Savage Station, Va. "Field Hospital at Savage Station, Va., after the battle of June 27, 1862." Shows scores of men, black and white, stretched out on the ground. A black soldier sits in lower left foreground. (Marked "491.")
Note: A researcher has attributed the photograph to James Gibson.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01063 (b&w copy scan of glass negative)
Call number: LC-B811-491 (glass negative); LOT 4172-A (photographic print)
Convalescent Colored Troops at Aiken's Landing "Convalescent Colored Troops at Aiken's Landing, A. M. Aiken's house at right." Shows about forty black soldiers sitting and standing on a slight hill.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-02032 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-02031 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative)
Call number: LC-B811- 2608 (glass negative); LOT 4172-B
Camp of 10th U.S. Colored Infantry. "Camp of 10th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows group of blacks standing outside tents. (Marked 4319).
Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-119848 (film copy negative).
Call number: LOT 4172-B
Camp of 27th U.S. Colored Infantry. "Camp of 27th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows tents and men standing amid trees in distance. (Marked 4096.)
Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-119925 (film copy negative).
Call number: LOT 4172-B
Picket Post "Picket Post." Shows two black soldiers in uniform aiming rifles, while leaning against the edge of a damaged wooden house.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01930 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-01929 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative)
Call number:LC-B811-2553 (glass negative); LOT 4172-C (photographic print)

"1st U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows side view of infantry at attention. (Marked "3032.")
Reproduction number: LC-B816-3032 (glass negative).
Call number: LOT 4173 [No original caption on item]. 29th Regiment from Connecticut at Beaufort, S.C., 1864. Shows black troops at attention, white officers aligned in front. Photo by Sam A. Cooley.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpbh-03373 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpbh-03372 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative)
Call number: LC-BH822-341 (glass negative); LOT 4173 (photographic print)
Soldiers on Review, South Carolina "Soldiers on Review, South Carolina." Shows black troops at attention, white officers aligned in front. Similar to image with negative number LC-BH822-341, but photographed from slightly different angle and cropped differently. Negative for this image appears to be in worse condition.
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpbh-03374 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpbh-03375 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative)
Call number: LC-BH822-342 (glass negative); LOT 4173 (photographic print)
Battery of Light 12 Pounders on Ordnance Wharf, City Point, Va. "Battery of Light 12 Pounders on Ordnance Wharf, City Point, Va." Shows long line of canons guarded by one black soldier.
Reproduction number:LC-DIG-cwpb-01982 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-01983 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative)
Call number:LC-B811-2583 (glass negative); LOT 4174
Dutch Gap Canal, November, 1864 "Dutch Gap Canal, November, 1864." Shows two black soldiers while canal is under construction. (Marked "4320.")
Reproduction number: LC-USZ62-119946 (film copy negative)
Call number: LOT 4178
Bv't-Major General E. Ferrero "Bv't-Major General E. Ferrero." Shows white officers seated under a "lean-to." (Title from caption book: "Petersburg, Virginia. Gen. Edward Ferrero and staff"). A black soldier stands guard at right. (Marked "53").
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-03669 (b&w copy scan of glass negative)
Call number: LC-B817-7053 (glass negative); LOT 4186 (photographic print)
Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Fort Slocum "Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Fort Slocum, April, 1865." Shows a group of white officers and two blacks in uniform at the righthand side of the group. (Marked "689.")
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04140 (b&w copy scan of glass negative); LC-USZ62-107713 (film copy negative of print)
Call number: LC-B817-7689 (glass negative); LOT 4187 (photographic print)
Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Fort Slocum "Officers, 4th U.S. Colored Infantry, Fort Slocum, April, 1865." Shows group of white officers and three blacks, one in uniform. (Marked "851.")
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04270 (b&w copy scan of glass negative); LC-B8171-7851 (film negative).
Call number: LC-B817-7851 (glass negative); LOT 4187
Field and Staff of 39th U.S. Colored Infantry"Field and Staff of 39th U.S. Colored Inf. In front of Petersburg, Va., Sep. 1864" [Group of six white officers, standing and seated; one black man in uniform and others not in uniform standing in background] (Marked "52" on verso of print.)
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04364 (b&w copy scan of glass negative); LC-USZ62-106650 (film copy negative of print)
Call number: LC-B817-7052 (glass negative); LOT 4187 (photographic print)
Officers of the 107th U.S. Colored Infantry "Officers of the 107th U.S. Colored Infantry." Shows a group of officers on a porch, including one black guard at attention. (Marked "684.")
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04136 (b&w copy scan of glass negative)
Call number: LC-B817-7684 (glass negative); LOT 4187 (photographic print)
[No Digital Image] "Negro Soldiers." Shows eighteen black men sitting in a row, some holding books, with three white men and two white women standing behind them, bay(?) in background.
Note: Identified by Bill Wiley in 1953: thought to be a group of Union soldiers, ca. 1863-1865, with their Northern officers and teachers probably on the South Carolina coast.
Reproduction number: LC-B8184-10061 (film negative).
Call number: LOT 4188
[No Digital Image] "Group, 22nd N.Y. State Militia, near Harper's Ferry, Va., 1861 (?)." Shows black soldiers seated and black cook standing in the background. (Marked "B163.")
References: Reproduced in Miller, vol. 7, p. 69.
Reproduction number: LC-B8184-B-163 (film negative).
Call number: LOT 4188.
[No Digital Image] "Group, 22nd N.Y. State Militia, near Harper's Ferry, Va., 1861 (?)." Shows black soldiers seated and black cook standing in the background. (Marked "B838.") (Similar to image in LOT 4188 with negative number LC-B8184-B-163.)
Reproduction number: -----
Call number: LOT 4189.
[No Digital Image] "Guard House and Guard, 107th U.S. Colored Infantry, Ft. Corcoran, near Washington, D.C.." Shows 15 black soldiers in two rows, rifle butts resting on the ground. (Marked "841.")
References: Image of War, Vol. 3, p. 240.
Reproduction number: LC-B8184-841 (film negative).
Call number: LOT 4190F
[No Digital Image] "Group of Federal Soldiers." Shows black and white soldiers on review.
Reproduction number: LC-B818-10029 (glass negative).
Call number: LOT 4190F
[No Digital Image} "Provost Marshal's Guard House, Vicksburg, Miss." Shows three black soldiers, one guard at attention, and the other two riding the sawbuck. (Marked "8187.")
Reproduction number: LC-B8171-8187 (film negative); LC-B816-8187 (glass negative).
Call number: LOT 4203
Hanging a deserter (Petersburg, Va.) "Hanging a deserter (Petersburg, Va.). Execution of a colored soldier, June 20, 1864." Soldier, face covered with cloth, hanging from scaffold. White soldiers sit nearby under tree. (Marked "B.")
Reproduction number: LC-B8171-783 (film negative)
Call number: LOT 4164-F
Hanging a Deserter (Petersburg, Va.) "Hanging a Deserter (Petersburg, Va.). Execution of a colored soldier, June 20, 1864. Vicinity of Petersburg, Va." (Title for negative: "Petersburg, Virginia (vicinity). Execution of William Johnson, Negro soldier.") Soldier, face covered with cloth, hanging from scaffold. Executioner stands behind body; white men, some in uniform, stand or sit nearby. (Marked "2355.")
Reproduction number: LC-B8184-2355 (film negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-01574 (b&w copy scan of variant); LC-DIG-cwpb-01573 (b&w copy scan of variant)
Call number: LOT 4164-F (NOTE: Another print of same image is in LOT 4172, titled "Execution of Wm. Johnson, June 20, 1864.")
[No Digital Image] "Bombproof quarters on the lines in front of Petersburg, Va., Aug. 1864." African American troops standing or sitting; one white man, not in uniform, seated in center of group.
References: Reproduced in Miller, vol. 3, p. 195.
Reproduction number: LC-B8184-802A (film negative)
Call number: LOT 4166-E
Soldiers in camp "Soldiers in camp."
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-02023 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-02024 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative).
Call number: LC-B811-2604 (glass negative);
Soldier group "Soldier group."
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-02019 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-02020 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative).
Call number: LC-B811-2602 (glass negative);
Unknown location. 12-pdr. Napoleon (model 1857?) [Unknown location. 12-pdr. Napoleon (model 1857?)]
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01981 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-01980 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative).
Call number: LC-B811-2582 (glass negative);
City Point, Virginia. Supply wagons of 2d Brigade, 2d Corps "City Point, Virginia. Supply wagons of 2d Brigade, 2d Corps"
Reproduction number: LC-DIG-cwpb-01970 (b&w copy scan of left half of glass stereograph negative); LC-DIG-cwpb-01971 (b&w copy scan of right half of glass stereograph negative).
Call number: LC-B811-2577 (glass negative);
Dutch Gap, Virginia. Bomb-proof quarters
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Old Negro (former slave) with horn with which slaves were called. Near Marshall, Texas.
Old slave quarters near Caruthersville, Missouri
Slave Quarters
Note the children playing with the homemade wheelbarrowin the foreground.

        After black men were allowed to vote, African-Americans were elected to fill legislative positions.  This 1878 photograph - entitled Radical Members of the First Legislature after the War, South Carolina - shows that blacks outnumbered whites.

"Because blacks in South Carolina vastly outnumbered whites, the newly-enfranchised voters were able to send so many African American representatives to the state assembly that they outnumbered the whites. Many were able legislators who worked to rewrite the state constitution and pass laws ensuring aid to public education, universal male franchise, and civil rights for all."

Although the United States Colored Troops did not see as much action as many of them wanted to, they did participate in many skirmishes and major battles. After an unspecified battle in Virginia, probably in 1864, these wounded soldiers recuperated at Aikens Landing, a site used mainly for supplies. Taunted by many detractors, African American soldiers were eager to demonstrate that they could be courageous under fire. Despite problems getting paid, lower wages than white soldiers when they finally were paid, segregated units, and high ranks for whites only, the U.S. Colored Troops displayed a tenacious loyalty to the Union cause.
Click to enlarge picture
ca.1861. Slave pen, Alexandria, Va.
                  Plantation Owner's Family Visiting Slave Quarters in Colonial Virginia, 1700s
: Plantation Slaves Loading Rice to a Barge on the Savannah River, 18th Century 
                                                                                         Arrival of Negro Family into Union Lines
Invoice of the Sale of Negro Slaves, 1835
Alfred Waud's drawing captures the exuberance of the Little Rock, Arkansas, African American community as the U. S. Colored Troops returned home at the end of the Civil War. The victorious soldiers are joyously greeted by women and children. 
Not until after the Emancipation Proclamation was in force as of January 1, 1863, did Union officers actively recruit African American soldiers, although some black men were unofficially part of segregated units in a few states. By the end of the Civil War, one out of every eight Union soldiers was a black man. This image is symbolic because the soldiers stand in front of a location where black slaves were held for auction, stripped, examined, and bought and sold before interested purchasers.

Actual photographs of slaves and slave life are very rare.  This makes sense . . . plantation owners and slave drivers certainly did not want to advertise and document their dark trade. After the slaves were freed, most were very poor and so did not have portraits made.  We have done extensive research to find the few existing photos of slaves and ex-slaves. Below, for your consideration, we present these rare images of slaves and slave life.  We are eager to expand this collection.  If you are a descendent of a slave, and have images in a family album of someone who was a slave, we would be honored if you would share it with us, and the visitors to this site.  Similarly, if you are the descendent of plantation or slave owners, we would be pleased if you would share your images.

Photographs of Slaves - Click on Image to be taken to a Larger Picture and Description

Thomas Nast Photograph

Thomas Nast Slavery Pictures

Thomas Nast was a staunch Abraham Lincoln supporter, defender of the Union Cause in the Civil War, and strong opponent to Slavery.  Nast used his art to show the Nation a picture of how things could be.  He created the artwork below on the topic of Slavery, in the days that Slavery was still a thriving institution in our land.  Thomas Nast's dramatic illustrations helped our Nation understand the moral outrage of slavery. The images capture the important events related to Slavery in the 1860's. The collection below contains all Slavery Artwork created by Thomas Nast during the Civil War years. Each leaf is original, and over 135 years old. This artwork was critical in helping to lead our Nation out of the Corrupt and Bankrupt Institution of Slavery, and onto a path of freedom and equality for all men.

Abraham Lincoln and Emancipated Slaves, April 1865

Richmond Virginia, the Confederate Capitol fell on April 3, 1865. The following day, April 4, 1865, President Abraham Lincoln went to the fallen city. Throngs of slaves were in the streets, celebrating their first day of freedom, and welcoming Lincoln. Thomas Nast captured this historic event with his drawing presented at your right.  This is perhaps the best portrait of Mr. Lincoln ever produced.  It shows that while Lincoln was to tragically die 10 days later, he did, if only briefly, get to see the fruit of his leadership and resolve.  He was able to see the grateful tears of the emancipated, and hear their cheers of appreciation. There is a fascinating story about this day, so please click on the image for the full story of the day that Abraham Lincoln walked the streets of the fallen Rebel Capitol.

1864 Presidential Campaign

By 1864, the Country had grown weary of the long and bloody Civil War.  Many began to think that the war was not worth it, and that the price of freedom was too great. George McClellan was running for President on the Democratic Party Platform of "Compromise With the South", which in effect meant "Let them Keep their Slaves if it will End the War". Abraham Lincoln was sinking fast, but then Thomas Nast created this illustration which changed everything. Read the fascinating Story of this Powerful Illustration, and how it helped swing the 1864 election.
Thomas Nast's "1864 Presidential Campaign" Illustration

Emancipated Slave Family

This 1863 Thomas Nast drawing shows a slave family reading word of the Emancipation Proclamation.  The image presents the moment of Joy, as the slave family realizes for the first time that they are free.  This picture of the slave family achieving their freedom is a classic Thomas Nast drawing, and shows his staunch support for Abraham Lincoln, and the emancipation movement.
Thomas Nast's Drawing of Emancipated Slaves

Southern Plantation Slaves Being Freed

This Original 1863 Thomas Nast drawing shows Union troops arriving at a Southern Plantation, and the ensuing emancipation of plantation slaves there. There is an incredible story associated with this drawing, so please be sure to click on the image for an enlargement of the picture and the full story on the illustration.
Thomas Nast Illustration of Slaves Being Emancipated on a Southern Plantation

Charge of the Buffalo Soldiers, 1863

In 1863, the Union Army began using emancipated slaves and other free black men as soldiers.  This was a very controversial move, and one that did not enjoy much support in the North, or among the white troops.  Thomas Nast, a visionary of his day, saw beyond the biases of the day, and saw that integration of blacks into the Union Army was a good thing.  He created the illustration to your right to show that Negro Buffalo Soldiers could fight bravely alongside white troops.  The image appeared in an 1863 edition of Harper's Weekly.
Thomas Nast's Original 1863 "Charge of the Buffalo Soldiers" Drawing

Runaway Slaves, 1863

This 1863 Thomas Nast illustration shows exiled Southern families, White and Black, heading North, looking for refuge in the Union.  The illustration is a classic Nast.   A group of Blacks can be seen, no doubt slaves looking for their freedom, and escaping the South with a White Family.
Thomas Nast's Original 1863 "Runaway Slaves" Drawing  

Injured Negro Soldier, 1865

This 1865 Thomas Nast illustration shows Columbia and an injured Negro Soldier.  The black man has lost his leg while serving as a Union Soldier.  He is pictured in his Union Uniform, and he has his cap in his hand.  Standing next to him is Columbia.
This is a classic Thomas Nast illustration, making the point that the freed slaves had served bravely in the Civil War. Nast had played a critical role in helping Lincoln get elected to a second term, and in building public support for the Emancipation of the Slaves.  In this touching illustration, Nast is going a step further, and suggesting both Citizenship, and the right to vote for Emancipated Slaves.
Thomas Nast's Original 1865 "Injured Black Soldier" Drawing

Escaping Slaves, 1863

This 1863 Thomas Nast illustration shows Escaping Slaves seeking refuge from Union Troops.  A multitude of slaves is seen approaching the Union Lines.  In one case a young black man can be seen carrying an older, frail black man to freedom.
This Thomas Nast piece demonstrates Nast's desire to humanize the slaves.  Images such as these would have been considered shocking at the time they were created.
Thomas Nast's Original 1863 "Escaping Slaves" Drawing
The images above present an eye-witness view of the institution of slavery.  It is clear from this slavery artwork, that Thomas Nast was a strong opponent of Slavery.  His images helped the country realize the brutality of slavery, helped get Abraham Lincoln elected to a second term, and helped accelerate the end to the institution of slavery in this Nation.
We created this Thomas Nast Gallery to digitally preserve Nast's Slavery work for posterity.  We are now making the original, 140 year old leafs available for a  $250 contribution to this site.  The proceeds from the sale of the material will enable us to continue to expand the free educational material featured on our site.  Please contact if you are interested in acquiring one of these original leafs.
A "Slave Map" is a map that was produced to graphically illustrate the relative proportion of free and slave populations in a state or county. Some maps used colors to convey this information, while others used a gray scale, with the darker areas representing areas with proportionally more slaves.  For your research and perusal, we have compiled an extensive collection of original Slave Maps.  Also included are maps that simply show Northern and Southern States in different shades, or simply show "The South", with the slave population presented in tabular form on the Legend of the map. Click on the Thumbnails Below to be taken to a larger view of the map of interest.

1861 Georgia Slave Map

1857 Map Showing Slave and Free States
1860 Slave Census

The Federals Shelling the City of Charleston 

After a Continuous Bombardment by the Federal Batteries on Morr's Island and The Fight for the Rifle-Pits in front of Battery Wagner

December 5 - cover illustration of "Confederate Sharpshooters Firing on a Federal Supply-Train on the Tennessee River"


Incredible Account and Picture of an African Slave Ship

Story and Pictures of Passengers on a Slave Ship

The Slave Ship

Many have written and argued that Slavery was a Sin of the South. I would argue most strongly that Slavery was NOT a Sin of the South; It was the Sin of a Nation. Placing the Sin of Slavery onto the doorstep of the confederacy is easy, and even comforting, but unfortunately is not the complete picture. The simple picture of Slavery as a Southern Sin does not reflect the much broader participation, exploitation and profit in Slavery as an Enterprise.
Here, for your perusal and research, we present an original 1860 news account of a captured Slave Ship. The Slave Ship was owned by a New York Slave Trader, It was full of Native African Men, Women, and Children, and it was delivering the Cargo to be sold in the South.
My hope, and even my belief is, that few today could look at these images, and read the accompanying story without being appalled, repulsed, and even outraged.
Click on the thumbnails above. Look at the picture of these people, created by God and in his image, packed onto this ship like cattle. Gaze at the image, and then spend several minutes reflecting on what it must have been like to be crammed onto a ship so tightly that you could not lie down, so tightly that you could hardly breathe. Think of the sounds of the dieing all around, the stench of the diseased and deprived hanging in the air, and the utter hopelessness of the situation.
After some time of quiet reflection, then read the story. There are three things to look for as you read the story; 1) Pay attention to the facts in the story describing the conditions on a Slave Ship, and then 2) consider the overall tone and demeanor of the news account, and note 3) that the newspaper was a Northern Newspaper published in New York City.
The facts of the conditions on the Slave Ship are quiet disturbing. It is an affront to all mankind that any man would be treated this way. However, the newspaper reports it in a light-hearted, almost whimsical fashion. The article describes the games of a small boy, it seams to imply that the level of death and disease as being “not as bad as usual”, perhaps even acceptable. It purports to be able to ascertain the intelligence, and presumably the worth of these people, by the shape of their head, and the width of their nose. When the people appear to be praying, or praising God, the author makes the assumption that the people could not be aware of God.
The writer, in describing this atrocity, lacks the indignation and passion that one would think would be associated with being an eye-witness to such a human catastrophe.
The plantation culture of the south helped to create Demand for slaves, rich northerners were more than happy to use their ships and wealth to Trade in Slaves for profit, and then the popular press, potentially influenced by the wealthy who were benefiting from the slave trade, appear to have been willing to simply look the other way.

The Slave Trader - History's Most Ignoble Trade?

Trader: One who buys, sells or barters commodities or materials of value. The term "Trader" is innocent enough, and no doubt, there are many throughout history who have practiced this profession with honesty and honor. The problem occurs when the "commodity of value" becomes men, women and children. The Slave Traders, or those who traffic in slaves, will doubtless claim the position as History's Most Detestable profession.
Slave Market
A Slave Market in Atlanta Georgia in 1864
Slave traders were those who fitted ships, sailed to the Slavery Coast of Africa, and procured men, women, and children to bring back to be sold as enslaved laborers. This was an expensive endeavor, and the Slave Traders were often backed by the Rich and Powerful.  In many cases, Slave Traders themselves were made rich by their work.
Under any conditions, this work would be detestable, but the outrage was multiplied by the complete inhumanity with which they pursued their chosen profession.  The conditions on the slave ships were reprehensible, with people packed so closely they could not even lie down.
It is against this backdrop that we present the following story.  It is an engraving and article from the March 8, 1862 edition of Harper's Weekly.  The story describes one of the most notorious of the Slave Traders - Nathaniel Gordon.  The story describes Mr. Gordon's capture, trial, and execution. Make note of the detailed description of the conditions on Mr. Gordon's ship, and the abject misery of his "passengers".
Of particular interest is Mr. Gordon's last few hours of life.  He was unrepentant to the end. His last few hours were agonizing and miserable, as he prepared to face his ultimate judgment for a life of greed and brutality.


Harper's Weekly, March 8, 1862
NOT the least important among the changes which are taking place in the current of national policy and public opinion is evidenced by the fact that on Friday, 21st February, in this city, NATHANIEL GORDON was hung for being engaged in the slave-trade. For forty years the slave-trade has been pronounced piracy by law, and to engage in it has been a capital offense. But the sympathy of the Government and its officials has been so often on the side of the criminal, and it seemed so absurd to hang a man for doing at sea that which, in half the Union, is done daily without censure on land, that no one has ever been punished under the Act. The Administration of Mr. Lincoln has turned over a new leaf in this respect. Henceforth the slave-trade will be abandoned to the British and their friends. The hanging of Gordon is an event in the history of our country.
He was probably the most successful and one of the worst of the individuals engaged in the trade. A native of Maine, he had engaged in the business many years since, and had always eluded justice. The particular voyage which proved fatal to him was undertaken in 1860. The following summary of the case we take from the Times:
It was in evidence (given by Lieutenant Henry D. Todd, U.S.N.) that the ship Erie was first discovered by the United States steamer Mohican, on the morning of the 8th day of August, 1860; that she was then about fifty miles outside of the River Congo, on the West Coast of Africa, standing to the northward, with all sail set; that she was flying the American flag, and that a gun from the Mohican brought her to.
It was shown by Lieutenant Todd that he went on board himself about noon, and took command of the prize. He found on board of the Erie, which our readers will remember was but 500 tons burden, eight hundred and ninety-seven (897) negroes, men, women, and children, ranging from the age of six months to forty years. They were half children, one-fourth men, and one-fourth women, and so crowded when on the main deck that one could scarcely put his foot down without stepping on them. The stench from the hold was fearful, and the filth and dirt upon their persons indescribably offensive.

Slave Trader


At first he of course knew nothing about them, and until Gordon showed him, he was unable to stow them or feed them—finally he learned how, but they were stowed so closely that during the entire voyage they appeared to be in great agony. The details are sickening, but as fair exponents of the result of this close stowing, we will but mention that running sores and cutaneous diseases of the most painful as well as contagious character infected the entire load. Decency was unthought of; privacy was simply impossible — nastiness and wretchedness reigned supreme. From such a state of affairs we are not surprised to learn that, during the passage of fifteen days, twenty-nine of the sufferers died, and were thrown overboard.
It was proved by one of the seamen that he, with others, shipped on the Erie, believing her to be bound upon a legitimate voyage, and that, when at sea they suspected, from the nature of the cargo, that all was not right, which suspicion they mentioned to the Captain (Gordon), who satisfied them by saying that he was on a lawful voyage, that they had shipped as sailors, and would do better to return to their duties than to talk to him. Subsequently they were told that they had shipped on a slaver, and that for every negro safely landed they should receive a dollar.

The negroes were taken on board the ship on the 7th day of August, 1860, and the entire operation of launching and unloading nearly nine hundred negroes, occupied but three quarters of an hour, or less time than a sensible man would require for his dinner. As the poor creatures came over the side Gordon would take them by the arm, and shove them here or there, as the case might be, and if by chance their persons were covered from entire exposure by a strip of rag, he would, with his knife, cut it off, fling it overboard, and send the wretch naked with his fellows.

Several of the crew testified, all agreeing that Gordon acted as Captain; that he engaged them; that he ordered them; that he promised them the $l per capita; that he superintended the bringing on board the negroes; and that he was, in fact, the master-spirit of the entire enterprise.

For this crime Gordon was arrested, tried, and, mainly through the energy of District-Attorney Smith, convicted, and sentenced to death. Immense exertions were made by his friends and the slave-trading interest to procure a pardon, or at least a commutation of his sentence, from President Lincoln, but without avail. He was sentenced to die on 21st. We abridge the following account of his last hours and execution [which we illustrate above] from the Herald and Times:


Nothing worthy of note occurred until about three o'clock A.M. on Friday morning, when the keepers were alarmed by the prisoner being suddenly seized with convulsions. At first it was supposed that he was trying to strangle himself; but on a close examination it was evident that he was suffering from the effects of poison. Dr. Simmons, the prison physician, was immediately sent for, and stimulants were freely administered for the purpose of producing a reaction. For the first half hour or so the efforts of the physician appeared to have but little effect. The patient became quite rigid under the influence of the poison, his pulse could scarcely be felt, and it was thought that after all the gallows would be cheated of its victim. Drs. James R. Wood and Hodgman, who were also in attendance upon the prisoner, labored hard to resuscitate the dying man, and finally, by means of the stomach-pump and the use of brandy, the patient was sufficiently recovered to be able to articulate. It was not until eight o'clock, however, that the physicians had any hope of saving Gordon's life. From that hour, however, the prisoner gradually recovered, although he was subject to fainting fits for hours afterward. When sensible he begged of the doctors to let him alone, preferring, he said, to die by his own hand rather than suffer the ignominy of a public execution.
It has not been satisfactorily ascertained how or in what manner the unfortunate man procured the poison with which he contemplated self-destruction. The symptoms were evidently those of strychnine, and the only way in which the keepers can account for the presence of the poison is its introduction in the cigars which Gordon had smoked so freely the night before. On Thursday the prisoner was compelled to undergo a rigid search, his clothing was changed entirely, and he was placed in a new cell, so that it would seem impossible almost for him to have procured the poison in any other way than that suggested by his keepers.
A few minutes after eleven o'clock, when it was apparent to Gordon that the execution would certainly take place, notwithstanding his attempt at suicide, he sent for Marshal Murray, and said he had something of a private nature to communicate. The Marshal repaired to the bedside of the culprit and asked if any thing could be done to alleviate his sufferings. Gordon raised himself slowly from his cot, and with much difficulty, said: "Cut a lock of hair from my head and give it to my wife." Then taking a ring from his finger, he requested that that also should be sent to his wife in remembrance of her husband. The request was cheerfully complied with, and the official, quite overcome with emotion, left the unhappy man to his fate.


At 12 o'clock, Marshal Murray notified Gordon, through Mr. Draper, that the hour had arrived. At this he expressed great surprise, and said he thought he had two hours more in which to live. The clergyman entered the cell and prayed with him, or rather for him. Deputy Marshal Borst aided him in dressing and gave him a large drink of clear whisky, when his arms were tied, the black cap was put carelessly on one side of his head, and he was carried on the deputy's shoulders to a chair in the corridor. The sight was simply shocking.

The man was not sober—that is, so powerful had been the effect of the poison that, in order to keep him alive till the necessary moment, they had been obliged to give him whisky enough to make an ordinary man drunk three times over. He sat lollingly in the chair, gazing listlessly around, while the Marshal, with unaffected emotion, read the former reprieve to him. That done, he was helped to his feet, and held there while the Marshal read to him. the death-warrant.

After this he looked around with a senseless smile, asked for some more whisky, which was kindly given him. The procession was then formed, Gordon stalking with a bravadoish air, upheld by the Marshals, toward the scaffold.

To a casual spectator it would appear that, exhausted by mental or physical suffering, Gordon was making a great effort to walk manfully to his fate. As it was, however, he had just sense enough left to endeavor to follow out the suggestion of the well-meaning deputy, who told him to die like a man, and to walk to the rope, so that no one could accuse him of fear. When he reached the scaffold, he said, "Well, a man can't die but once; I'm not afraid." The cap was drawn over the whitened, meaningless features, the noose-knot was carefully adjusted under his ear, and he stood, an unthinking, careless, besotted wretch waiting for he knew not what, when with a jerk he went high in air, and fell to the length of the rope, still senseless, still unfeeling, still regardless of pain or pleasure.

The body swayed hither and thither for a few moments, and all was quiet. No twitchings, no convulsions, no throes, no agonies. His legs opened once, but closed again, and he hung a lump of dishonored clay.



Alongside Buddhist Pirates, Christian Russians, non-Sunni Afghans, and the predominantly Shia Iranians, Hindu slaves were an important component of the highly active slave markets of medieval and early modern Central Asia. The all pervasive nature of slavery in this period in Central Asia is shown by the 17th century records of one Juybari Sheikh, a Naqshbandi Sufi leader, (the Sufis appear to have a representation in standard modern historical texts in India, as a very liberal, humane, tolerant and integrative interpretation of Islam) owning over 500 slaves, forty of whom were specialists in pottery production while the others were engaged in agricultural work

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Young female slaves fetched higher market price than skilled construction slaves, sometimes by 150% Because of their identification in Muslim societies as kafirs, "non-believers", Hindus were especially in demand in the early modern Central Asian slave markets, with Indian Hindu slaves specially mentioned in waqafnamas, and archives and even being owned by Turkic pastoral groups.In September 1687, 665 slaves were exported by the English from Fort St. George, Madras. Finally, in 1694-96, when warfare once more ravaged South India, a total of 3,859 slaves were imported from Coromandel by private individuals into Ceylon
 According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on the Viceroy's Council), there were an estimated 8,000,000 or 9,000,000 slaves in India in 1841. In Malabar, about 15% of the population were slaves

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The real threat of invasion in 1804-5 rallied the public to the cause of King and Country, but by 1807 the dissenters were back, ending the slave trade (though not slave ownership) in the Empire with a huge petitioning campaign.
In 1830, more high prices, unemployment and continued poverty wages brought the southern counties out into open revolt, which the authorities put down with force. 19 rebels were executed with a further 200 death sentences commuted to transportation to Australia.
 In 1833 Britain outlawed slavery in all its colonies


As early as 1655,Barbados was shipping 7,787 tons of sugar back to England, and there were already 20,000 slaves on the island against 23,000 whites,
y 1700 there were 50,000 slaves on Barbados, with the white indentured labourers almost gone. By 1800 there were 70,000, and another 400,000 on Jamaica.Excusing British slavery by pointing to the social mores of the time is by no means an adequate response.

In the century and a half of the slave trade, from the 1650s to 1807, between three and four million Africans were transported out of their homelands to the New World 

in British ships”,

The slaves were denied every last vestige of their humanity by traders, their private parts inspected closely for signs of yaws prior to purchase, their breast our shoulder then branded by the initial of the ship that would take them across the ocean. Many attempted suicide rather than face the hell of the plantation. One slave trader spoke of sharks following the ships all the way from West Africa to the Caribbean, feasting on the suicides and the corpses pitched over the side. Those who remained on board were crammed in cheek-by-jowl and chained together, malnourished, forced to fester in each other’s filth, driven slowly mad by dehydration and dysentery.
One might almost say that it was the unlucky ones who survived the “middle passage” and made it to the West Indies. One fifth of slave children born on the plantation were dead before their second birthday. If they lived to six or seven they were sent out to work. Eighty per cent of slaves worked seventy to eighty hour weeks. The work, especially in the mill and the boiling house,The slaves were denied every last vestige of their humanity by traders, their private parts inspected closely for signs of yaws prior to purchase, their breast our shoulder then branded by the initial of the ship that would take them across the ocean. Many attempted suicide rather than face the hell of the plantation. One slave trader spoke of sharks following the ships all the way from West Africa to the Caribbean, feasting on the suicides and the corpses pitched over the side. Those who remained on board were crammed in cheek-by-jowl and chained together, malnourished, forced to fester in each other’s filth, driven slowly mad by dehydration and dysentery.
One might almost say that it was the unlucky ones who survived the “middle passage” and made it to the West Indies. One fifth of slave children born on the plantation were dead before their second birthday. If they lived to six or seven they were sent out to work. Eighty per cent of slaves worked seventy to eighty hour weeks. The work, especially in the mill and the boiling house, was not only back-breaking but highly dangerous. Simply being a slave was lethal in itself, but they cost sufficiently little to purchase for their deaths not to pose a serious economic problem. Women bore a particularly harsh burden, subjected as they were to the “habitual sexual aggression” of their owners. Pregnant women were forced to continue working right up til the point of delivery. In spite of all this, the slaves resisted whenever and however they could, either in outright rebellions as in Antigua in the 1720s and 1730s and Jamaica mid-century, or in simply preserving their own cultures against all the odds. But this is another story.

 was not only back-breaking but highly dangerous. Simply being a slave was lethal in itself, but they cost sufficiently little to purchase for their deaths not to pose a serious economic problem. Women bore a particularly harsh burden, subjected as they were to the “habitual sexual aggression” of their owners. Pregnant women were forced to continue working right up til the point of delivery. In spite of all this, the slaves resisted whenever and however they could, either in outright rebellions as in Antigua in the 1720s and 1730s and Jamaica mid-century, or in simply preserving their own cultures against all the odds. But this is another story.

Britain’s single most valuable import was the sugar produced by three quarters of a million West Indian slaves, generating huge personal fortunes and general enrichment which was in turn to transform both the economy and British society. The ports of Bristol and Liverpool developed and expanded significantly as a direct result of the transatlantic trade. The great library at All Soul’s College, Oxford was built thanks to a donation from the Codmingtons of Barbados. 

The banking houses of Barclays and Lloyds grew rich, and reinvested in manufacturing.[from slavery money]

 And thenouveaux riches of the trade were now throwing their weight around in Westminster and the City of London. Their liberty, at least, had been greatly enhanced.

Liberating sex slaves in India:-

Within hours of arriving in Mumbai, Neetu found herself in a world unlike anything she could have imagined. A world of threats and violence in dark alleys and hidden rooms filled with cramped and brutalized bodies – the world of stolen women. ‘Night was like day. Day was like night,’ recalls Neetu.
Young, fair-skinned and beautiful, Neetu is one of an estimated 12,000 girls and women that the UN’s International Labour Organization believes are trafficked every year from Nepal to work in the brothels of India’s megacities. Other agencies believe the figure to be much higher. In Mumbai alone there may be as many as 35,000 Nepali girls working in the city’s notorious red-light district, giving Nepal the dubious distinction of being the largest exporter of trafficked women in South Asia. Many are tricked into leaving their homes with the promise of a well-paid job. Some are abducted. Others are sold by their own families. In Neetu’s case, the brother and husband of one of her closest friends delivered her to the brothel. ‘They loved me so much that I never suspected foul play,’ she remembers.
A Street called Desire Mumbai Cages
Slavery To Freedom (Pakistan):-
There are million’s of slaves alive today. The majority are bonded laborers in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. Bonded labour is a contemporary from of slavery (debt bondage), where people are forced in to slavery due to debts inherited from past generations. Slavery To Freedom (Pakistan)The Open Hearts Open Minds Foundation will be working in conjunction with Ummah Welfare Trust with their project in Thar Pakar – Sindh province of Pakistan where there is an estimated 50,000 bonded labourers according to the statistics given by the Human Rights commission of Pakistan, who have consequently freed 7,500 bonded labourers since 1995.
Total cost to free one family is:- £600
This includes the following:

  • Paying debt for freedom
  • Education program
  • Clothes
  • Household utilities
  • Either a donkey cart, sewing machine etc for income generation
  • Traveling costs
  • Land for residence

 rWho were the Untouchables in India: Why They Became Untouchables? by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar- Hindu people from slavery of caste:-

By Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, January l, 1948, 1, Hardinge Avenue, New Delhi
"This book is a sequel to  treatise called The Shudras-Who they were and How they came to be the Fourth Varna of the Indo-Aryan Society which was published in 1946. Besides the Shudras, the Hindu Civilisation has produced three social classes whose existence has not received the attention it deserves. The three classes are:
(i) The Criminal Tribes who number about 20 millions or so;
(ii) The Aboriginal Tribes who number about 15 millions; and
(iii) The Untouchables who number about 50 millions."

[Now untouchability  is abolished by law.names like criminal tribes etc are also removed by law]

The cost of slaveryKevin Bales, president of the nonprofit advocacy organization Free the Slaves talks with host Kai Ryssdal about why slavery continues to exist today.

RYSSDAL: Are human beings, on a relative scale over time, are human beingsexpensive today?

BALES: Oh, gosh, no. One of the most important things aboutcontemporary forms of slavery has been the absolute collapse in the price ofhuman beings in the last 50 to 60 years. And so it's a very remarkable changein human history.

If you go back to Mississippi in 1850, the average slave, a prime field hand,would cost about $1,200 to $1,500, but those are 1850 dollars, which is about$40,000 in today's money. You could go to Cambodia today and pick up a humanbeing for $100 or less.

RYSSDAL: Does it seem to you that there is more slavery now than ever?

BALES: Well, there are about 27 million people in slavery around theworld today. That's a pretty significant jump over the last 50 to 60 years.At the same, while that may be the greatest number of individuals in slaveryever in human history, it's also probably the smallest proportion of theglobal population to ever be in slavery.

African slaves

slave revolt in Haiti
                               The slave revolt in Haiti.1822
Abraham Lincoln
  president Abraham Lincoln -removed slavery from united states

child slavery


  child soldier

 child slavery  -


emancipation of women and abolition of 'sati'

Close to two million slaves were brought to the American South from Africa and the West Indies during the centuries of the Atlantic slave trade. Approximately 20% of the population of the American South over the years has been African American, and as late as 1900, 9 out of every 10 African Americans lived in the South. The large number of black people maintained as a labor force in the post-slavery South were not permitted to threaten the region's character as a white man's country, however. The region's ruling class dedicated itself to the overriding principle of white supremacy, and white racism became the driving force of southern race relations

Most of the cotton crop was grown on large plantations that used black slave labor, such as this one on the Mississippi River.

                                     SLAVE AUCTION

Seven African American slaves sitting in a pile of cotton in front of a gin house on the Smith Plantation, 1861-1862).

Slaves of the Confederate Genl. Thomas F. Drayton, Hilton Head, S.C.

The image is an illustration from an original March 9, 1861 edition of Harper's Weekly, the most popular illustrated newspaper of the day.  The illustration is captioned "Inauguration of President Jefferson Davis of the Southern Confederacy, at Montgomery, Alabama, February 18, 1861."

United Northern & Southern Knights KKK 

Another KKK Imperial Wizard and part of His Klan 


 The lynching of Lee Hall, his body hung from a tree, bullet hole in head, ears cut off, discarded cookstove and trash. February 7, 1903, Wrightsville, Georgia...Lynching was live theatre. The executioners of one African American staged the lynching in a theatre and charged admission. One nickel bought you a seat and a shot at the victim. Journalists and newspaper publishers acted as press agents for these events-hyping, scripting, and advertising. Lynchings also sold newspapers. After the "opening" they reviewed the performance. A journalist in Wrightsville reported the lynching of Lee Hall for the Sandersville Progress: "It seems that the lynchers made a complete failure to remove his handcuffs and the negro is now hanging to the tree handcuffed. The lynchers used a small rope, tying the rope under his arms and throwing the rope over a limb of the tree. They did not even hang him up. He was found this morning with his feet on the ground in an apparently standing position with his head thrown back . . . completely riddled with bullets and his ears severed."   
On June 13, 2005, the United States Senate formally apologized for its refusal to approve any of the 200 anti-lynching legislation bills introduced during the first half of the 20th century, a failure that led to the deaths of at least several thousand African-Americans.  

                                                  The Hermitage, slave quarters, Savannah, Ga.

Hermitage Slave Quarters
Hermitage Slave Quarters Built in 1850, these two brick buildings were the dwellings of two families who were among 201 enslaved African-Americans working at the nearly 400 acre Hermitage Plantation on the Savannah River in Chatham County just north of Savannah, Georgia. These families supplemented the meager food rations provided by the plantation owner by planting a garden behind the house. They also hunted game and caught fish in the Savannah River.
The plantation, owned by Henry McAlpin, had 52 similar buildings arranged in rectangular formation. Although some rice was grown there, the Hermitage was primarily an industrial plantation with steam-powered saw and planing mills, a rice barrel factory, and Savannah’s largest brick works, which produced more than 60 million bricks. The plantation Hermitage Slave Quarters was known throughout the South for the superior bricks it produced.
Among the African-Americans who operated the plantation, there were steam engineers, coopers, midwives, carpenters, brickmakers, and herbalists. They worked under the "task system"--producing goods for their own use or for sale after finishing their assigned chores. Their skills enabled them to make clothing, fishnets, baskets, and containers for sale and everyday use.
Enslaved African-American craftsmen produced all of the materials used in constructing these buildings. Hermitage Slave Quarters Brickmakers produced the brick, an important industry on the Hermitage Plantation. Wood sawn in the plantation mill became the floor and rafters. Finally, African-American brickmasons and carpenters built the buildings.
On January 1, 1863, slavery was declared illegal in the eleven confederate states when President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation. However, at the Hermitage Plantation, freedom did not come until December 21, 1864, when Savannah surrendered to General Sherman’s army. Many enslaved African-Americans escaped to freedom in the North or Canada; others fought for freedom during the Civil War. Adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment in the Constitution in 1865 finally abolished slavery.

image of Hermitage Plantation, Savannah, Georgia

Family and former slave quarters at The Hermitage plantation, Savannah (Detroit Publishing Co. c1907)

 Freed slaves under Union Army guard leaving their plantations.

Ironically, although Southern politicians supported secession in order to preserve slavery, their action led instead to the end of slavery. As the war dragged on, Northern war aims gradually
shifted from preserving the Union to abolishing slavery and remaking the Union.

Slavery in the Roman Empire:-

Slaves were often very badly treated in the wealthy ancient Roman families. Slaves would be used to keep furnaces burning for the bath houses and central heating. Roman Slaves would be expected to cook, clean and do other household chores and jobs. 

In the country, Roman farms, slaves would have to do all the hard and back-breaking work needed in running a farm. 

Unfortunate Roman Slaves were used down mines to mine silver, lead, tin and gold for their masters - they might not get to see sunlight for months at a time. 

Slaves were also used inAncient Rome's galleys and in gladiatorial combats in the arena. 

Some slaves might be used as tutors for wealthy families children. Other gifted slaves might be expected to keep their masters accounts and run his investments for him. 

Even valued household slaves who were treated as part of the Roman family in many ways, were still slaves, and did not have the same rights and access to the law as aRoman Citizen. 

One of the laws that was in operation at the time of the Emperor Hadrian was if a master was murdered by a slave, then all the other slaves within hearing were executed, as well as the slave who did the dastardly deed. 

If your mother was a slave when you were born then you were also a slave. This helped the Romans maintain their number of slaves when they were not at war. 

During war time, captured prisoners were used as slaves in the Roman Empire. 
gladiators were slaves 

Spartcus Falls

The leader of the slave revolt, Spartacus, falls.
In ancient times, very few were opposed to slavery.

Spartacus and Slavery

A Roman soldier named Spartacus became an outlaw, perhaps after having deserted. For survival he joined drifters in bandit raids, and he was caught. For punishment, Roman authorities sold him as a slave. He became a prisoner at a training school for gladiator contests in the city of Capua. And there, in 73 BCE, he and seventy-seven other prisoners and slaves escaped and seized control of nearby Mount Vesuvius. As before, news of the revolt encouraged other slaves to revolt, and they joined Spartacus on Mount Vesuvius -- an army of from fifty to a hundred thousand. Thus began what historians called the Third Servile War.
The slaves on Vesuvius were too diverse for any one leader to control. Some wished to go north across the Alps and disperse. Others wished to remain in Italy and plunder. Despite their disorganization they managed to hold off the first Roman legions sent against them, which were incompetently led. Rome sent more legions, led by the talented Marcus Crassus, an ambitious aristocrat with the unostentatious manner traditionally valued among Romans. Crassus was a former slave trainer. He had amassed a great fortune, much of it by buying estates cheaply from Sulla's victims and reselling them later for a big profit. He had acquired political position by lending money to young aristocrats with political ambitions, and he had made money by operating a fire brigade in Rome that would rush to the scene of a fire and buy the property at a bargain price before agreeing to put the fire out.
The slave army broke through Crassus' lines and pushed south to the toe of the Italian peninsula, where it hoped to cross into Sicily. But the slaves were unable to buy passage or commandeer ships, and Rome's legions cornered them. To escape, the slaves scattered. Piecemeal they were defeated and captured, and, to advertise their defeat and lift the morale of Roman citizens, Crassus had them crucified along the road (the Appian way) between Capua and Rome.
After this latest slave uprising the demand for slaves declined among the Romans, largely from fear of slaves in great numbers. Landowners in Italy began replacing gangs of slaves with what they saw as an easier and less frightening alternative: freemen farming as tenants, the landlords receiving a third or more of their harvests. Slaves would still be used by the Romans, especially in workshops and as domestics. They would work as firemen, torturers for the police, laborers in the military, accountants, and guards for public buildings, but slavery had seen its peak among the Romans. With less warring abroad and a reduced supply of slaves, the price of slaves would rise and the purchase of slaves decline.


                                                                              Ancient Egypt: Slavery:-

African slaves in ancient Egypt
African slaves in Egypt:-

 Some Egyptians were sold into slavery because of debts or sold themselves to escape poverty. As indentured slaves they did not lose all their civil rights; and sometimes the economic security they gained through their new status might seem to be worth giving up some freedoms for.
    A remnant of these customs is seen in the demotic contracts concerning security, where grasping the hand refers to the warrantor's hand being held by the creditor symbolizing the debtor giving the creditor power over his person. Debt slavery was abolished in the Late Dynastic Period.
Punishment    It has been proposed that the vizier had the right to impose perpetual forced labour on a convicted criminal, which would put him in a position of virtual slavery.
Voluntary servitu
ushabtisde-woman paid a temple to be accepted as a servantRoyal ushabti
WarCaptured soldiers belonging to the Sea Peoples    While there had been slaves in Egypt since the beginning of its history, their numbers greatly increased during the New Kingdom, when the pharaohs were committed to a policy of foreign involvement and conquests in Nubia, Canaan and Syria brought in many prisoners of war, seqer-ankh, who were enslaved, at times branded with the sign ki

I gave to them captains of archers, and chief men of the tribes, branded and made into slaves, impressed with my name; their wives and their children were made likewise.
Ramses III
 is said to have given 113,000  slaves to the temples during the course of his reign. 
By birth
    In the Roman empire the offspring of slaves inherited their parents' status
    There were apparently times when order was barely enforced and people, above all women, were abducted and enslaved. In a letter from the late New Kingdom the owner of such kidnap victims complained to the trader from whom he had purchased them, that the woman's family had come to claim her and he demanded compensation . Similar incidents happened during the Roman periods, when policing was in the hands of the Roman army instead of the professional policeforce which had come into existence in the second millennium BCE 
    Strangers were in even greater danger. According to the apocryphal story in the Bible Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers and taken abroad by the merchants [1]
The price of a slave
    Prices were affordable to the better-off householder . Iry-nofret paid the equivalent of 4 deben [3] and 1 kit of silver, (i.e. 41kit, about 370 grammes) for a Syrian girl
Amenhotep III 
ordered 40 girls from Milkilu, the Canaanite prince of Gezer, at 40 kit of silver each
The slave population:-
Thutmose III for instance is reported to have returned from a campaign in Canaan with almost 90,000 prisoners. Given the small size of armies - generally thousands rather than tens of thousands of soldiers - most of these prisoners must have been civilians
pre-dynastic period, when the belongings buried with a dead king may have included some of his servants . Such practices were unknown in historic times
Runaway slavesSlaves being property, if they tried to escape they were pursued and recaptured if possible. The reason for attempted escapes was often harsh treatment.There were apparently two options open to a runaway: one was crossing the desert in order to reach a foreign country, the other seeking asylum in a temple and becoming a temple servant:
The setting free of slaves    Sometimes slaves were set free through manumission - a practice deemed advantageous for the soul of the slave owner - and were at times even adopted by the family of their former master
Foreigners  In many countries foreigners had few rights during ancient times, and their status was at times little better than that of slaves. In Egypt resident foreigners had rights,

the subject of African slavery

captives loaded for passage to america

The Arabs were the earliest non-Africans to buy African slaves. In the early 1500s, Portugal and Spain began to send African-born slaves to their colonies in the New World, and in the following century England, France, and the Netherlands entered the trade, as eventually did the United States. Rum and guns were among the items most frequently traded for slaves.

Prof. Sensbaugh is an expert on the subject of African slavery; for this moving address he researched in the archives of Lehigh University . He began by asking us to imagine what it was like to have been born on the sea from Guinea in a horrifying place deep down in the bowels of a slave ship; all around you are chained, beaten, raped, regularly humiliated for amusement (forced to dance on the deck of the ship, whipped), your culture stripped from you as you lost name, family, all connection with your memories, place of birth. Women were driven even worse than men because forced tChristian religion enabled women to join communities, extract some order from a hideously shattering experience, begin to regain some balance in their minds. They formed religious communities of women under the cover of Christianity and created lateral familieso breed children by their captors.

slaves being inspected for sale
 slave captives awaiting passage 
slaves from africa to america
IndianOceanEastAfricanslavestakenaboarDaphnefromdhow,November1868natioalarchives" ;
slave 1850
 slaves on ship to americaplantation slaves

list of slaves on slave ship

slave with iron collar as punishment for running away
slave brothers 1880 

african slaves in america

slave quarters america
slave ship 'wild bark' 1800 on the way to America(seperate quarters for female slave can be seen at the back)

slaves packed on ship to america

angry dejected slave -america

people became rich in america through free work done by slaves

wilson chinn a branded slave showing instruments of torture

female slaves zanzibar

interior of slave ship[click on photo to see bigger]

slave family 1850



The Mill Yard, Antigua

Boiling House, Antigua

This aquatint by William Clark is an illustration depicting the interior of a boiling house on Delap's Estate - a sugar plantation in Antigua. Once the sugar cane had been harvested and processed in the mill, the extracted liquid was piped to the boiling house where the juice was boiled to purify and refine it into crystallised sugar. In the boiling house were 4 or 5 copper containers hung over a large furnace. These coppers were carefully scaled in size and became progressively smaller. Any impurities that rose to the surface were skimmed off and the remaining liquid was poured into the next container where the process was repeated. The enslaved workers in the boiling house had to endure not only the overwhelming temperatures and unpleasant smells, but they also had to be very careful to avoid being scalded by the hot liquids.
Carting And Putting Sugar-hogsheads On Board, Antigua

This is an aquatint illustration of Willoughby Bay in Antigua. It has been taken from a work by William Clark in which he depicts and describes the various processes involved in sugar cultivation in the early nineteenth century. Blocks of sugar were packed into large wooden barrels known as hogsheads. Each hogshead would weigh between 800 and 1500 pounds. There were no wharves on the island at this time so boats were rowed to the shore where the hogsheads would be rolled onto them down a ramp. A brick built hut can be seen to the left of the picture. This would have served as a storehouse for plantations that were some distance from the coast.

Cutting the Sugar Cane, Antigua

This is an aquatint by William Clark. The print was was 1 of 10 included in his work about the island of Antigua. As a guest painter to the island Clark was allowed access to all aspects of life on the plantations and he produced images of the different stages of the sugar cultivation process. This print shows enslaved people harvesting the ripe sugar canes. The canes took about 12 months to mature and grew to a height of 9 or 10 feet. They were harvested using very sharp double-edged knives which could be used on the upstroke as well as the down. This scene was drawn on Delap's sugar estate and a sugar mill can be seen in the background on the right of the painting.

Digging Or Rather Hoeing The Cane Holes, Antigua

This picture of enslaved people working on the plantations was drawn on Weatherill's Estate in Antigua in the early 19th century. The aquatint is by William Clark. The estate was located on the north west coast of the island and the terrain included peaks of up to 250 feet as well as 3 valleys. The slaves working to prepare the fields before the planting of sugar canes had a hard and gruelling job. Cane holes were hoed in squares and this painting shows children marking out the areas to be hoed with sticks placed 3 or 4 feet apart. It was usual practice for cattle to be enclosed in fields that had been left fallow, thus fertilising the ground. As can be seen on the left of the print, the herdsman lived in a shelter, often made of nothing more than straw, next to the field so that he could watch to make sure no animals escaped.

Exterior Of The Curing House and Stills, Antigua
This aquatint by William Clark is an illustration of the exterior of the curing house and stills on Weatherill's plantation in Antigua. It is taken from a work by William Clark in which he depicts and describes the different processes involved in sugar cultivation. After boiling the sugar was cooled and then packed into ceramic containers shaped like flowerpots with a hole in the bottom. The molasses or syrup would drain out of the pots and could then be taken to the distillery to make rum. After 5 or 6 weeks in the curing house the sugar had dried and hardened into pot shaped loaves which could then be transported to England.
Interior Of The Distillery, Antigua
This aquatint by William Clark is an illustration of the interior of the distillery on Delap's sugar plantation in Antigua in the early 19th century. Rum was the staple liquor in the Caribbean at this time and was made by distilling fermented water and molasses & the syrup that remains after sugar cane juice has been boiled and the crystallised sugar extracted. Because the molasses were a by-product of the sugar cultivation process, plantation owners were able to make a good profit from their distilleries.

Planting The Sugar Cane, Antigua
Aquatint taken from 'Ten Views in the Island of Antigua', by William Clark. The aquatint depicts a group of enslaved people planting sugar cane on Bodkin's estate. The slaves - men, women and children, are working in the field together. They would have worked from 6 in the morning until 6 in the evening, with just a short break for lunch. This was arduous work and they were watched by a master or overseer, seen here wearing a black hat and holding a whip. The whip would have been used to drive them to work harder. The painting is set looking south from Bodkin's Estate and in the background can be seen Monks Hill Military Station. Also known as George Fort, this fortification took 16 years to build (1689-1705) and was intended to defend Falmouth, then Antigua's main town, from attacks by both the French and the Arawaks. The entire population of the island (about 1200 people at that time) could be accommodated inside, although it was intended to be a place of refuge for women and children.
The Court House, Antigua
This is an aquatint of the Courthouse in the town of St John, Antigua and is one of a series of illustrations in the work 'Ten Views in the Island of Antigua' by William Clark (1770-1838), an American explorer and artist. The Court House, built from stone quarried in the North Sound Islands off Antigua's north east coast, was designed by Peter Harrison, an architect from Yorkshire who was responsible for designing many of the important buildings in Jamaica and on America's east coast. In addition to its function as a court room, it also housed the Legislative Council and, when not in official use, was used to host charity balls, dinners and even bazaars.
The Mill Yard, Antigua

This print depicts sugar cane being delivered to a windmill on an Antiguan plantation in the early 19th century and is by William Clark. This particular plantation was owned by the Gambles family and was situated near the town of St John's. Mills on sugar plantations could be powered by water or wind but mills driven by animals were the most common. The freshly cut cane would be fed between heavy rollers by 2 slaves working opposite each other. This process extracted the juice which was then piped to a nearby boiling house. It was a dangerous job as the slaves could be dragged between the rollers and crushed to death. The plantation owner and his overseer can be seen on the left side of the picture.


Shows a woman carrying a weight chained to her ankle; in background, a man tilling ground with a hoe. The woman was judged guilty of not speaking when spoken to by a white person; for this she received 200 lashes and was forced to carry a 100 lb. weight chained to her ancle for several months


If their masters once catch them, they give them no quarter; for they hang a great iron collar about their necks on each side whereof there are hooks, whereunto is fastened a stake or branch of a tree, with which they thrash them at pleasure. . . . But if it so happen that after this sort of chastisement they relapse again into the same fault, they . . . cut off one of their legs, nay, and sometimes hang them for an example, of terrour [sic] unto others . . .. I knew one [slave master] in Martinico who being of a compassionate nature could not find in his heart to cut off his slave’s leg, who had run away four or five times, but to the end he might not again run the risqué of losing him altogether, he bethought of fastening a chain to his neck, which trailing down backwards catches up his leg behind, as may be seen by the cut [engraving]. And this, in the space of two or three years does so contract the nerves that it will be impossible for this slave to make use of his leg. And thus, without running the hazard of this unhappy wretch’s death, and without doing him any mischief, he thereby deprived him of the means to make his escape” (pp. 119-120).


(Iron collar, punishment for runaways); urban scene, marketers of various goods; man/boy on right has weight on his head (also punishment for running away), attached to his ankle by a chain. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831.


three men with their feet in stocks, surrounded by their cooking utensils. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816 to 1831.


executing the punishment of whipping/flogging); black man being whipped by public flogger in a town square; onlookers, others waiting to be flogged, soldiers guarding prisoners. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816


European whipping black on ground with arms and legs lashed together; background, black tied to tree being lashed by another black. The engravings in this book were taken from drawings made by Debret during his residence in Brazil from 1816


A Negro hung alive by the ribs to a gallows"; background shows skulls (presumably of beheaded slaves) on posts. This illustration was based on a 1773 eyewitness description. An incision was made in the victim's ribs and a hook placed in the hole. In this case, the victim stayed alive for 3 days until clubbed to death by the sentry guarding him who he had insulted.


Black victim being beaten on the rack. Stedman witnessed this scene in 1776. The man being broken on the rack (on the orders of the white authority) had been accused of stealing a sheep and shooting an overseer who discovered the theft. This method of torture was intended to keep the victim alive long enough to endure extreme pain before his eventual death. In this case, the victim's left hand was cut off before he died as additional punishment for theft and to serve as an example to other


Black victim being beaten on the rack. Stedman witnessed this scene in 1776. The man being broken on the rack (on the orders of the white authority) had been accused of stealing a sheep and shooting an overseer who discovered the theft. This method of torture was intended to keep the victim alive long enough to endure extreme pain before his eventual death. In this case, the victim's left hand was cut off before he died as additional punishment for theft and to serve as an example to other

SLAVES { nobody thought or dreamt anything like a black president }

Pencil and sepia drawing by Charles Landseer, an English artist who visited Brazil when he was around 26 years old. The sketch shows a white (?) man whipping a black slave who is tied to a post and held by another black. Captioned "Black Punishment at Rio de Janeiro," there is no other information on this scene, which Landseer presumably witnessed during his stay in 1825-26.


(public punishment on St. Anne square); black whipping black with black and white onlookers. For an analysis of Rugendas' drawings


Water color on paper titled "Punishing Negroes at Cathabouco [i.e., Calabouco], Rio de Janeiro"; shows unclothed black man tied to stake, being whipped by another black supervised by a white man. The English painter, Earle, visited Rio de Janeiro in 1820.



Slave hiding in a tree, trapped by armed whites on horseback; dogs surrounding tree. Illustration



Caption, "running away"; fugitives trying to elude white captors. The Fugitive Slave Act (1850) authorized slave catchers to track down runaway slave


man on left being flogged, in center at bottom, a woman has her hair cut off.



The Method of Procuring Slaves on the Coast of Africa; with an account of their sufferings on the voyage, and cruel treatment in the West Indies"
A front and profile view of an African's head, with the mouth-piece and necklace, the hooks round which are placed to prevent an escapee when pursued in the woods
The lower left shows leg shackles used on the slave ships; also, "spurs used on some plantations in Antigua"



Caption, "Flogging the Negro"; from an abolitionist book which gives a detailed description of the scene


Shows a woman carrying a weight chained to her ankle; in background, a man tilling ground with a hoe. The woman was judged guilty of not speaking when spoken to by a white person; for this she received 200 lashes and was forced to carry a 100 lb. weight chained to her ancle for several months


George Laws was accused by his master of mistreating a horse so that the horse refused to haul dirt. Laws is shown here being hoisted with block and tackle prior to being whipped with a cowhide; he was ultimately able to escape (case described on pp. 470


Runaway slaves being assisted ashore at Philadelphia from schooner which had carried 15 Underground Rail Road passengers.


bush captain, one whose profession it was to recapture fugitive slaves


Trial and imprisonment of Jonathan Walker, at Pensacola, Florida, for aiding slaves to escape from bondage


A woman with Iron Horns and Bells on, to keep her from running away"


"This is a machine used for packing and pressing cotton. By it, he hung me up by the hands at letter a, a horse moving round the screw
I was carried up ten feet from the ground, when Mr. Gooch . . . let me rest for five minutes, then carried me round again, after which, he let me down and put me into the box d and shut me down in it for about ten minutes . . ." (pp. 51-52). Born enslaved in North Carolina around 1815, Roper made a number of escape


Title, "Food for Criminals," shows prisoners in the Rio jail taking "the daily pittance" of food for "their miserable brethren in Gaol." The man on the left carries a box containing bread or biscuit, while the iron pot suspended from the pole contains "the soup, meat, and vegetables." The "worst and most hardened" of the prisoners are "distinguished by irons round the leg, in addition to those on the neck"

An Account Of The Slave Trade --Author: Falconbridge, Alexander Medium: Letterpress Date: 1788

An Account Of The Slave Trade -Title Page
This is the title page of Alexander Falconbridge's 'An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa.' Falconbridge was employed as a surgeon on board a number of slave trading ships and thus witnessed at first hand the treatment of the enslaved men, women and children on what became known as the middle passage - the journey from Africa to the Caribbean. The book describes their capture in Africa, their experiences on board ship, and their sale to plantation owners on arrival in the West Indies.
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The Black Man's Lament--Author: Opie, Amelia Medium: Letterpress Date: 1826

The Black Man's Lament -Title Page
This is the title page of Amelia Opie's poem 'The Black Man's Lament.' She was born Amelia Alderson in 1769 and married the painter John Opie in 1798. She was well known as an author in literary circles, but after the death of her husband in 1807, she dedicated much of her time to charitable work in support of organisations such as the Southey Reform Hospital and the British Anti-Slavery Society. 'The Black Man's Lament' or 'How to make sugar,' focuses on the work done by the enslaved population on the sugar plantations in the West Indies.
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The History of Mary Prince, A West Indian Slave -Title Page--Author: Prince, Mary Medium: Letterpress Date: 1831--A TRUE STORY

                                                        A true story by a slave woman 1831[PAGE 1 TO 23}
Text of 'The History of Mary Prince.' It was published in 1831 and was the first substantial account of the life of an enslaved woman. One of the worst periods of Mary's time in the Caribbean was the 10 years she spent on Grand Turk island working in the salt ponds. The labour left her feet deformed and in great pain. She also both witnessed and endured beatings and sexual harassment. Despite the pain it caused her to recall her experiences, Mary wanted her readers to understand the brutality of the slavery system and hoped that her story might encourage support for the anti-slavery movement.

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African American men paving road, Washington

African American men paving

Imperial Wizard

Dr. H.W. Evans, Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, leading his Knights of the Klan in the parade held in Washington, D.C.1926