A Timeline of India in the 1800s
1600s: The British East India Company Arrives
1600s: The Mogul Empire at Its Peak
1700s: Britain Assumes the Upper Hand
The East India Company established its own army in India, which was composed of British troops as well as native soldiers called sepoys. under the leadership of Robert Clive, gained military victories from the 1740s onward, and with the Battle of Plassey in 1757 were able to establish dominance.
The traditional dancing of India was a source of fascination for the British.
The East India Company gradually strengthened its hold, even instituting a court system. British citizens began building an "Anglo-Indian" society within India, and English customs were adapted to the climate of India.
When the East India Company ruled India, they did so largely with native soldiers.
1800s: "The Raj" Enters the Language-The British rule in India became known as "The Raj,Tales of life in India fascinated the British public
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1857: Resentment Toward the British Spills Over,1857-58: The Indian Mutiny It was estimated that less than 8,000 of nearly 140,000 sepoys remained loyal to the BritishThe conflicts of 1857 and 1858 were brutal and bloody, and lurid reports of massacres and atrocities circulated in newspapers and illustrated magazines in Britain.
The outnumbered British forces had to move quickly to react to the 1857 uprising.
The British dispatched more troops to India and eventually succeeded in putting down the mutiny, resorting to merciless tactics to restore order. The large city of Delhi was left in ruins. And many sepoys who had surrendered were executed by British troops.
The 1857 uprising against British rule led to scenes of intense combat.
1858: Calm is Restored in British India-
British forces succeeded in retaking the city of Delhi.
1876: Empress of IndiaThe importance of India, and the affection the British crown felt for its colony, was emphasized in 1876 when Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli declared Queen Victoria to be "Empress of India."
Britain's monarch, Queen Victoria, was fascinated by India and retained Indian servants.
Reforms were instituted, which included tolerance of religion and the recruitment of Indians into the civil service. While the reforms sought to avoid further rebellions through conciliation, the British military in India was also strengthened.
The English in India adopted some Indian customs, such as smoking a hookah.
British control of India would continue, mostly peacefully, throughout the remainder of the 19th century.
The Great Exhibition of 1851 featured a hall of items from India, including an opulent tent.
It wasn't until Lord Curzon became
Viceroy in 1898, and instituted some very unpopular policies, that an
Indian nationalist movement began to stir.
|The Most Honourable
The Marquess Curzon
KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC
Lord Curzon and Madho Rao Scindia, Maharaja of Gwalior, pose with hunted tigers, 1901
|Viceroy and Governor-General of India|
6 January 1899 – 18 November 1905
A major famine coincided with Curzon's time as viceroy in which 6.1 to 9 million people diedDuring the Irish War of Independence, but prior to the introduction of martial law in December 1920, Curzon suggested the “Indian” solution of blockading villages and imposing collective fines for attacks on the police and army
, He presided over the 1905 partition of Bengal, which roused such bitter opposition among the people of the province that it was later revoked
BEGINNING OF DIVIDE AND RULE
[DIVIDE HINDU AND MUSLIM LEADING TO CREATION OF PAKISTAN]
H. H. Riseley, home secretary to the government of India, stated on 6 December 1904: "Bengal united is a power; Bengal divided will pull in several different ways.. one of our main objects is to split up and thereby weaken a solid body of opponents to our rule".
The decision to effect the Partition of Bengal was announced in July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. The partition took effect in October 1905 and separated the largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas
The Swadeshi Movement started with the partition of Bengal by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, 1905 and continued up to 1908. It was the most successful of the pre-Gandhian movements.was an economic strategy; Its chief architects were Aurobindo Ghosh, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic products and production processes. as a strategy, was a key focus of Mahatma Gandhi, who described it as the soul of Swaraj (self rule). Gandhi, at the time of the actual movement, remained loyal to the British Crown.
Politically there was a degree of unity between Muslim and Hindu leaders after the war, as typified by the Khilafat Movement.
The All-India Muslim League-was founded in 1906, in the midst of the protests over the Partition of Bengal in 1905. until the late 1930s was not a mass organisation but represented the landed and commercial Muslim interests of the United Provinces (today's Uttar Pradesh).An early leader in the League, Muhammad Iqbal, was one of the first to propose (1930) the creation of a separate Muslim India. By 1940, under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, it had gained such power that, for the first time, it demanded the establishment of a Muslim state (Pakistan), despite the opposition of the Indian National Congress. During World War II the Congress was banned, but the League, which supported the British war effort, was allowed to function and gained strength
.[BRITISH STRATEGY TO DIVIDE AND RULE OR SPLIT ] It won nearly all of the Muslim vote in the elections of 1946. The following year saw the division of the Indian subcontinent and the Muslim League became the major political party of newly formed Pakistan
It is possible that Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League, simply wished to use the demand for a separate state as a bargaining chip to win greater power for Muslims within a loosely federated India. Certainly, the idea of 'Pakistan' was not thought of until the late 1930s. The Muslim League, which co-operated with the British, had rapidly increased its membership, yet still had very limited grassroots level organisation
This was dramatically revealed on the 16 August 1946, when Jinnah called for a 'Direct Action Day' by followers of the League in support of the demand for Pakistan
This was interpreted by the British as evidence of the irreconcilable differences between Hindus and Muslims. In reality, the riots were evidence as much of a simple lack of military and political control[by the british] as they were of social discord.Most of the Congress leaders were secularists and resolutely opposed the division of India on the lines of religion. Mohandas Gandhi and Allama Mashriqi believed that Hindus and Muslims could and should live in amity
The partition animated the Hindus and led the Muslims to form their own national organization. Bengal was reunited in 1911 in an effort to both appease the Bengali sentiment and have easier administration but it caused resentment among the Bengali Muslims who benefited from the partition and the resentment lasted until the end of the British rule which ended in 1947 with the partition of Bengal
The Second Partition What ensued was one of the largest population movements in recorded history. According to Richard Symonds: At the lowest estimate, half a million people perished and twelve million became homeless.In 1947, Bengal was partitioned for the second time, solely on religious grounds, as part of the Partition of India following the formation of the nations India and Pakistan. East Bengal became East Pakistan, and in 1971 became the independent state of Bangladesh after a successful war of independence with West Pakistan in the partition of Bengal congress leaders also supported this revolt
THE Partition of India ranks, beyond a doubt, as one of the 10 greatest tragedies in human history.
Restoration of womenBoth sides promised each other that they would try to restore women abducted during the riots. The Indian government claimed that 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women were abducted, and the Pakistani government claimed that 50,000 Muslim women were abducted during riots. By 1949, there were governmental claims that 12,000 women had been recovered in India and 6,000 in Pakistan. By 1954 there were 20,728 recovered Muslim women and 9032 Hindu and Sikh women recovered from Pakistan. Many of the Muslim women refused to go back to Pakistan fearing that they would never be accepted by their family; similarly, the families of many Hindu and Sikh women refused to take back their relatives
India (2006 Est. 1,095 million vs. 1951 Census 361 million)
The Partition of India http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl1826/18260810.htm