Computing History 1968-Present

Unix Apple Microsoft Processors Hardware Software Networking Games Culture
1968 July: Intel formed by Robert Noyce, Gordon Moore, & Andy Grove ## June: US Patent 3,387,286 awarded to Dr. Robert Dennard, of IBM Research Center, for Dynamic RAM #
Dec.: Douglas Engelbart drives the "Mother of All Demos", demonstrating the wooden mouse (see movie), cutting & pasting (see movie), hypertext, dynamic file linking, & shared-screen collaboration #
June: FCC compels AT&T to allow customers to connect non-Western Electric equipment to the telephone network #
Hot Wheels introduced #
1968
1969 Apr.: AT&T's Bell Telephone Labs withdraws from the Multics project #
Aug.: Unix created at AT&T's Bell Telephone Labs for DEC PDP-7 by Ken Thompson & Dennis Ritchie; Thompson's wife vacations to California for a month, & he spends 1 week each on kernel, shell, editor (ed, "most user-hostile editor ever created"), & assembler ##
December 28: Linus Torvalds born in Helsinki, Finland #
May: Advanced Micro Dynamics (AMD) founded # Jan.: BBN begins creating the ARPAnet, forerunner of the Internet #
Dec.: 4 nodes on ARPAnet (UCLA, SRI, UCSB, & U. of Utah) #
Jan.: US Justice Dept. files antitrust suit against IBM #
Aug.: Humans walk on the moon #
Woodstock
1st successful open-heart transplant surgery
1969
1970 Intel creates 1103 chip, 1st available DRAM chip #
DEC begins shipping the PDP-11 (250,000 sell over its lifetime) #
Nutting Associates releases Computer Space, 1st commercial coin-op (25¢) video game; only 1500 machines are made # June: Xerox opens Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) #
Nerf balls introduced #
1970
1971 Nov.: Unix version 1 written in B; 10,000 lines of code & 60+ commands #
Nov.: UNIX Programmer's Manual \1ritten by Thompson & Ritchie #
While a freshman at Harvard, Richard Stallman (RMS) begins working at MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab #
Jan.: Intel correctly manufacturers 1st microprocessor, the 4004 (4-bit, 108 KHz, 60k operations/sec., 2300 transistors) # IBM intro's 8" floppy disk, but read-only # Pascal programming language invented # 15 nodes on the ARPAnet
Email invented by Ray Tomlinson
10 pound Phonemate Model 400 introduced for $300; could save 20 30-second messages on reel-to-reel tape, & could listen using headphones # 1971
1972 June: 10 Unix installations in world (all at AT&T in New Jersey) # Bill Gates & Paul Allen form their 1st company, Traf-O-Data, which records automobile traffic flow using Intel 8008# Apr.: Intel 8008 (200 KHz, 8-bit, 16 kb memory access, 3500 transistors) # 5.25" floppy disks appear C programming language created at AT&T Labs by Dennis Ritchie & Brian Kernighan ##
Gary Kildall writes PL/M, 1st programming language for Intel processor #
Sept.: Magnavox releases Odyssey 100 home video game system, connecting to TVs, for $100; comes with tennis, hockey, roulette & 9 other games #
Syzygy founded & renamed Atari; & ships Pong (November), the 1st successful commercial video game (10,000 sold) #
Texas Instruments introduces its 1st line of electronic calculators
Hewlett-Packard releases HP-35, 1st scientific hand-held calculator #
Hamilton Watch Co. introduces the Pulsar, 1st LED digital wristwatch, in gold ($2100) & steel ($275); only displays time when button pushed!#
7"x4"Polaroid SX-70 Land Camera, 1st to auto-eject finished image, without having to peel off wrapper & wait #
1972
1973 Jan.: Unix version 3 introduces pipes #
Feb.: 16 Unix installations in world #
Aug.: UNIX kernel rewritten by Ritchie in C, making it portable #
Oct.: 1st Unix paper delivered by Ritchie & Thompson at IBM's Symposium on Operating System Principles #
IBM intro's readable & writable 8" floppy disk, storing 400 kb #
IBM intro's 3340 hard disk, using 4 8-inch platters, stores 70 MB #
Nov.: Xerox Palo Alto Research Center creates the Alto, which uses mouse, GUI, Ethernet #
IBM develops the hard disk
Gary Kildall writes CP/M (Control Program/Monitor) OS using PL/M # May: Ethernet invented by Bob Metcalfe#


an.: Unix installed at Berkeley on a PDP-11/45#
May: ~20 UNIX users meet in New York #
July: Ritchie & Thompson's paper on UNIX appears in Communications of the ACM, vastly publicizing the OS #
    Apr.: Intel 8080 (2 MHz, 8-bit, 64 kb memory access, 6000 transistors) #
Sept.: Ed Roberts borrows $35k though he's $300k in debt, & develops the MITS Altair kit computer #
Sept.: Bravo, 1st WYSIWYG word processor, developed for Xerox Alto #
Gary Kildall writes CP/M (Control Program/Monitor), 1st operating system for microcomputers, & founds Intergalactic Digital Research, later just Digital Research #
40 nodes on ARPAnet #
Bob Kahn & Vint Cerf publish 1st paper describing TCP/IP #
Atari releases Gran Trak arcade video game, 1st car-racing game controlled by steering wheel #
Atari hires 40th employee: Steve Jobs #
Sept.: 100,000 coin-op video games in US #
Dungeons & Dragons introduced #
1974
1975 May: RFC 681, "Network UNIX", appears; Unix now part of the ARPAnet #
May: Unix V6 released; under 10k lines of code!#
June: Steve Wozniak types a character on a keyboard & sees it appear on a TV screen, the 1st time in history this has happened #
Jan.: In 8 weeks, Gates & Allen develop BASIC for Altair 8800, 1st language for PCs #
Apr.: Micro-Soft founded #
July: Micro-Soft licenses BASIC to MITS #
  Jan.: Popular Electronics features MITS Altair 8800 on cover ##
Apr.: Ed Roberts sells the MITS Altair 8800 assemble-it-yourself kit for $397 (1 kb RAM), coining "Personal Computer"; within 1 month, 250 orders per day ##
Apr.: At 4th meeting of Homebrew Computer Club, Steve Dompier plays "Fool on the Hill" using Altair & radio #
IBM tries to enter "small machine" market with 5100 (50 lb. "portable", $9k-$20k), but it fails #
  60 nodes on ARPAnet #
Dec.: $250 million in video game systems sold for year #
Mar.: 1st meeting of what will become Homebrew Computer Club, with Wozniak there #
July: Arrow Head Computer Company opens in Los Angeles, selling Altairs, boards, peripherals, & magazines: 1st independent US computer store #
Sept.: BYTE magazine, issue 1#
Sony Betamax, 1st stand-alone VCR
1975
1976 Sept.: Unix licensed by 138 organizations #
Bill Joy creates vi & Richard Stallman creates Emacs #
Original BSD Daemon logo (the "beastie") created #
Mar.: Steve Wozniak finishes the Apple I (1 MHz MOStek 6502 CPU, 4 kb RAM, BASIC on ROM) ##
Apr.: Steve Wozniak & Steve Jobs found Apple Computer & start putting together the Apple I in Jobs' family garage ##
Apr: Ron Wayne sells his 10% stake in Apple for $800#
Steve Wozniak proposes HP create a PC but it's rejected; Steve Jobs proposes Atari create a PC but it's rejected #
July: Apple I kit sold for $666.66#
Feb.: Gates publishes his "Open Letter to Hobbyists" excoriating the sharing of programs #
Nov.: Micro-Soft changed to Microsoft #
Dec.: Gates drops out of Harvard #
July: Zilog Z-80 (1 billion made, & still going!) released by Frederico Faggin #
AMD & Intel sign patent cross-license agreement #
8" floppy drive available for $1200
5.25" floppy drive available for $390
Dec.: Electric Pencil, 1st popular word-processing program for microcomputers #
63 nodes on ARPAnet #
Atari releases Breakout coin-op video game (15,000 sold over lifetime) #
Warner Communications buys Atari for $28 million #
Fairchild Camera and Instrument's Channel F home video game system, 1st one to use plug-in cartridges, with color & sound; $150 for system & $20 per cartridge #
3 million video games sold #
Jan.: 1st issue of Dr. Dobb's Journal of Computer Calisthenics and Orthodontia#
Mar.: 1st Annual World Altair Computer Convention, in Albuquerque #
Sept.: Computer Shack, later ComputerLand, incorporated #
1976
1977 Mar.: John Lions' book on UNIX, Code and Commentary, available #
BSD Unix created at U. of California—Berkeley
Apr.: Apple ][, the 1st PC with plastic case, color graphics, keyboard, & display, released for $1300: 4kb RAM, 1 MHz CPU, keyboard, sound, game paddles, BASIC in ROM ##
    June: Commodore PET released for $600 (6502 CPU, 4 kb RAM, keyboard, display, cassette tape drive) #
Aug.: Radio Shack TRS-80 released for $399 (4 kb RAM, keyboard, B&W screen, tape cassette) #
Dec.: 48,000 PCs shipped in 1977#
    Atari 2600 home video system introduced, with plug-in cartridges, color graphics, sound, & joysticks ($190) ##
Apr.: 12,750 attend 1st Annual West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco #
June: Camp Retupmoc, 1st week-long computer camp, in Terre Haute, IN #
1977
1978 Mar.: Bill Joy begins producing BSD, sending out 30 copies of BSD1 & 75 copies of BSD2#
1st non-DEC Unix port to Interdata 832#
2nd BSD, including Pascal, vi, mail, more, csh, ex #
5.25" floppy drive available for $495
1st DOS for Apple (v. 3.1) released (no relation to MS-DOS)
Dec.: Sales reach $1 million #
Intel 8086 (16-bit, 29k transistors, 1 MB memory access, 5MHz)
DEC VAX (Virtual Address eXtension), a 32-bit machine, goes on sale #
Altair production ends
Epson dot matrix printer announced
Sept: MicroPro's WordStar word processor released, for CP/M systems
  Oct.: Space Invaders video arcade game; 350,000 sold over lifetime #
Magnavox's Odyssey2 cartridge-based video game system #
Dec.: $50 million spent to buy coin-op video arcade games, with Atari getting 70% of that #
Milton Bradley's Simon debuts, asking players to remember a sequence of colors & sounds #
Rubik's Cube (~4.3 x 1019, or 43 quintillion, possible configurations, but only 1 solution!) introduced #
Texas Instruments Speak & Spell ($50) speech synthesizer helps children learn to spell 200+ common words #
Magnavox Magnavision Model 8000 DiscoVision Videodisc Player, 1st laserdisc player ($750); discs played 25 minutes of a movie on each side #
1978
1979 Jan.: Unix version 7 released, "the 1st portable Unix"; manual is now 400 pgs, with 2 400-page supplements (with Bourne shell, awk, sed, tar, touch make, uucp, find, cpio, unlimited users … & kernel is just 40 kb!) ##
June: AT&T announces new license for Unix V7: more expensive, & academic license ($20k) no longer permits automatic classroom use #
Dec.: BSD3 appears #
Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) founded to create Unix ports #
Jobs & other Apple employees see demo of Xerox Alto's GUI (which impresses them mightily) & Object-Oriented Programming & networking (which they don't "get")
Move Albuquerque HQ to Bellevue, WA
Motorola 68000 released (16-bit, 68k transistors) #
  VisiCalc, 1st spreadsheet program, released; sales eventually rise to 12k/mo. by 1981
USENET invented
CompuServe offers MicroNET (bulletin boards, databases, & games)
Atari's Asteroids video arcade game (100,000 sold over lifetime) #
$930,000 spent by users on coin-op video arcade games #
$400 million of video game systems & cartridges sold #
July: Sony introduces the Walkman TPS-L2 (originally called the Soundabout, Stowaway, & Freestyle) & world's 1st lightweight headphones ($200); 186 million cassette-based Walkmans are sold over its lifetime ##
Strawberry Shortcake dolls introduced #
1979
Unix Apple Microsoft Processors Hardware Software Networking Games Culture
1980 Oct.: BSD4 released (job control, sendmail) #
Apple IIIintroduced for $4500-$8000 (2 MHz CPU, 128 kb RAM, built-in 5.25" floppy) & fails—in 4 years, only 65,000 are sold
Dec: Apple IPO (APPL); Woz sells shares to employees (2000 for $5) #
Aug.: Xenix, a version of Unix built mostly by SCO, announced ##
Steve Ballmer joins
Asked by IBM to develop BASIC for upcoming IBM PC
Convinces IBM it has an operating system IBM can license; after IBM agrees, buys QDOS from SCP for $100k
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) coined by Prof. David Patterson of U of C—Berkeley #
Jan.: Z8000 ONYX, 1st Unix workstation, demoed (8 serial ports [users], $25k) #
1st 5.25" hard drive from Seagate
Seattle Computer Products (SCP) creates QDOS (Quick & Dirty Operating System) for their machines
300 bps modem avail. for $195 (invented in 1962) #
1200 bps modem avail.
Jan.: Ellis & Truscott announce Netnews design (later Usenet) #
Mattel releases Intellivision home video game system for $300#
Oct.: Midway releases Pac-Man arcade video game; within 1 year, 100,000 machines sold & $1 billion in quarters spent #
Nov.: Atari's 1st National Space Invaders Competition; Bill Heineman wins with 165,200#
Nov.: Atari releases Battle Zone video arcade game #
Mattel ships 200,000 Intellivision units #
$500 million in video games systems & cartridges sold in US #
$500 million worth of coin-op arcade video games sold in US; $3.8 billion in quarters spent #
  1980
1981 June: BSD 4.1 released #
Oct.: AT&T released Unix System III (commercial V7), 1st version of Unix provided without source code #
    Intel 8088 (4.7 MHz)
AT&T Bell Labs' BELLMAC-32A, world's 1st single-chip 32-bit microprocessor
Aug.: IBM PC released (4.7 MHz Intel 8088, 16 kb RAM [expandable to 256 kb], DOS 1.0) for $1565, legitimizing the PC & beginning the WinTel (Windows-Intel) monopoly ##
Adam Osborne introduces Osborne I, the 1st portable, for $1795 (64kb RAM, 4 MHz Zilog Z-80A CPU, CP/M OS, modem, 2 5.25" floppy drives, 5" display—and 24 pounds!) & inaugurates software bundling with hardware (WordStar, SuperCalc, & BASIC) #
Xerox 8010 STAR introduced for $16,595, with a Desktop, clickable icons for documents and folders, windows with scrollbars, contextual menus, & visual interfaces for options
200 nodes on Internet #
July: Atari releases Asteroids for home video games #
PacMan fever
Steve Juraszek plays arcade game Defender for 16 1/2 hours on 25¢, scoring 15,963,100#
Video arcade games introduced: Nintendo's Donkey Kong, introducing Mario; Midway's Ms. Pac-Man; Sega's Frogger; Namco's Galaga; Atari's Centipede & Tempest, the 1st color vector graphics game #
US Army modifies Atari's Battle Zone to enable crews to practice against Soviet tanks #
Video arcades takes in over $5 billion as 4.5 million arcade machines are sold #
$1 billion in sales of home video game systems & cartridges; 9% of US homes have video game system; 80% are Atari #
Aug.: MTV debuts # 1981
1982 Feb.: SUN founded by Scott McNealy, Bill Joy, Andreas Bechtolsheim, & Vinod Khosla; SunOS based on BSD 4.1c ##
Apr.: BSD 4.1a adds TCP/IP & sockets ##
Apple is 1st personal computer company to reach $1 billion in annual sales
1st computer virus to escape into the wild, Elk Cloner, runs through Apple ][ systems ##
  Intel 80286 (16-bit, 134k transistors, 16 MB memory) #
Commodore 64, best selling computer of all time (22 million sold), released for $600 (64kb RAM, 16-colorgraphics, & 1st with integrated sound)
Compaq founded & introduces 1st IBM clone for $3000 (4.7 MHz 8088, 128 kb RAM)
Adobe founded
Aug.: 235 nodes on Internet #
Sept.: 1st smiley used :-) #
TCP/IP declared standard for DOD
Atari 5200 video game system, for $269#
Atari releases E.T. the Extraterrestrial game for 2600 after only a 5-week development timespan; a terrible game, it fails ##
Sept.: Steve Wozniak's 1st US Festival, 1st time Diamond Vision displays used at US concert (3 days, 20 bands, 34 hours of music, 400,000 in attendance, 105°F weather, 36 arrests, 12 drug overdoses, $12.5 million lost) ##
US Dept. of Justice throws out antitrust lawsuit against IBM
Compact Disc announced
Trivial Pursuit introduced #
1982
1983 Jan.: AT&T announces UNIX System V, the 1st supported release #
Sept.: Richard Stallman announces GNU Project to create a free operating system #
45,000 UNIX installations in world
Apple Lisa, with the 1st PC GUI (but with a document-centric approach), a full suite of bundled programs (LisaWrite, LisaCalc, LisaList, LisaProject, LisaDraw, LisaPaint, & LisaTerminal), & first Apple mouse, released for $10,000 & fails (1 MB RAM, 5 MB hard drive)
Apple ][ the 1st company to sell 1 million units #
PCs outsell Macs for the 1st time #
Word introduced: $375
1st Microsoft mouse: $200
Begins developing OS/2 with IBM
Nov.: Announces Windows 1.0 will be out in early 1984#
  4.25 lb. Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100, 1st popular laptop, with internal 300 bits per second modem ($799) #
Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet program, inspires people to buy the IBM PC
C++ designed
WordPerfect 3.0 ships for $500
Aug.: 562 nodes on Internet #
Cinematronics' Dragon's Lair arcade game, 1st laserdisc-based coin-op game; 50¢ per play #
May.: Steve Wozniak's 2nd US Festival (3 days, 34 bands, 670,000 in attendance, $7-8 million lost) ##
Dec.: Michael Jackson's Thriller video appears on MTV #
PC named 1982Machine of the Year by TIME
Motorola introduces 1st commercial cell phone, the DynaTAC 8000X (1 foot+ long, 28 oz's., 30 min's. talk time, 30 number storage), for $3995#
Sony CDP-101, world's first consumer CD player, released for $900#
Cabbage Patch Kids, Care Bears, & My Little Pony introduced #;
1983
1984 Jan.: Richard Stallman resigns from MIT AI Lab, but he is still allowed to have office & lab space there #
Sept.: Richard Stallman (RMS) begins work on GNU Emacs #
SUN introduces NFS (Network File System) for network file sharing
Vendors unite to form X/Open consortium to sponsor standards & "Open Systems"#
U. of California—Berkeley releases version 4.2 of BSD, with TCP/IP & more
100,000 UNIX installations in world, incl. 750 universities #
The "1984" ad runs once, during the Super Bowl, introducing the Macintosh
The original Macintosh, with its simple GUI (System 1, with intuitive icons & useful fonts on a 400 KB, 3.5" disk), & bundled software (MacWrite, MacPaint), released for $2500 (8 MHz, 32-bit Motorola 68000 CPU, 128 kb RAM, built-in 9" B&W screen at 512x342, 3.5" floppy, mouse) #
100,000 Macs sell in 6 months
2,000,000th Apple II sold
AppleWorks released: word processing, database, & spreadsheet
MS-DOS 3.1 released
Demos Windows to IBM for 3rd time, but IBM is not interested
June: Motorola 68020 (32-bit) #
Hewlett-Packard ships LaserJet, 1st laser printer, for $3600
Michael Dell begins selling custom-built PCs from his college dorm room #
IBM announces monitors with 640x350 resolution
  Oct.: 1024 nodes on Internet #
DNS introduced
2400 bps modems avail. for $900
  AT&T monopoly broken up
William Gibson's Neuromancer intros term "cyberspace"
Transformers introduced #
1984
1985 HP's Unix, HP-UX 1.0, released #
Feb: Steve Wozniak ends his full-time employment at Apple to create world's first universal remote control #
May: Steve Jobs forced out of Apple #
Sept.: Steve Jobs founds NeXT ##
Nov.: Apple's Unix, A/UX, announced #
Macintosh Plus for $2600 (1 MB RAM, support for hard drives, improved GUI)
Excel released—for Mac
Mar.: MS-DOS 3.1 released #
Nov.: Windows 1.0 ships for $100 (~$177 in 2005 money) & sells poorly because there are no programs for it & it's too intensive for common hardware; includes MS-DOS file manager, calendar, clock, notepad, & calculator in a tile interface###
Dec.: Windows 1.0.1 ships two weeks after Windows 1.0, fixing several bugs #
Gates turns 30, & Microsoft has 910 employees & $140 M in revenue #
Oct.: Intel 80386 (32-bit, 275k transistors, 4 GB memory access) #
July: Commodore unveils Amiga 1000 for $1300 (Motorola 68000 processor, 256 kb RAM, multitasking & windowing OS) #
IBM has 40% market share for PCs #
Gateway Computer founded #
PageMaker for Mac, 1st page layout software, released
Quantum Computer Services founded (see October 1991)
symbolics.com is 1st commercial domain name
FCC allows certain bands of wireless spectrum—at 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, & 5.8 GHz—to be used without a government license
Nintendo Entertainment System released in US, along with Super Mario Bros., the best-selling game of all time (40.24 million) #
Mar.: "We Are The World" released; raises $63+M #
Peak of Cabbage Patch Kids craze: $600 million sold #
1985
1986 Jan.: SUN goes public #
250,000 UNIX installations in world
Lisa discontinued after rapidly-declining sales
Jan.: System 3.0 ships #
Jan.: (c)Brain, 1st virus for IBM-compatible PCs, written by Pakistani brothers & spreads around world #
Mar.: MSFT (1100 employees, $200 million in revenue) goes public at $21/share & Gates (who owns 43% of company) is world's youngest billionaire at 30#
Motorola's 68040 (32-bit, 25 MHz)
Compaq releases 1st IBM-compatible PC #
Dec.: 30 million PCs in US #
Larry Walls starts developing Perl #
Feb.: 2308 nodes on Internet #
  Jan: Space Shuttle Challenger \1isaster
1986
1987 Nov.: NeXTStep released #
750,000 UNIX installations in world
Unix fragments into competing open systems
Andrew Tanenbaum releases Minix, a micro-kernel Unix clone with source code for teaching, in Operating Systems: Design and Implementation##
HyperCard, a graphical hypermedia database tool, released with System 6, introducing the pointing-finger cursor (discontinu in 2004) #
Dec.: Windows 2.0 released, with icons, overlapping windows, & hot-key shortcuts ###
Dec.: Millionth copy of Windows sold #
Buys Forethought, makers of PowerPoint for Mac
Transfers ownership of Xenix to SCO for 25% of the company #
    Feb.: GNU C compiler (gcc) starts circulating; 110,000 lines of code ##
Apr.: IBM releases OS/2 1.0, a "modern" operating system with improved graphics#
Mar.: UUNET, 1st commercial ISP providing email & Usenet access, founded; 50 customers by June #
Dec.: 28,174 nodes on Internet #
9600 bps modem avail. for $995
  Oct.: Stock market crash, when Dow-Jones drops 22.6% & lost $500 million, largest decline since the Depression #
Koosh Ball & Pictionary introduced #
1987
1988 Jan.: IBM's Unix, AIX 1.0, released #
RMS writes the GNU (later General) Public License, or GPL
POSIX 1 published
May: 7 co's, incl. IBM, DEC, & HP, form Open Software Foundation to create UNIX standard ##
Oct.: NeXT releases the NeXTcube for $6500 (25 MHz 68030, 8 MB RAM, 17" monitor, NeXTstep OS) #
A/UX 1.0 released #
Buggy MS-DOS 4.0 released #
Bill Gates on the NeXT: "Develop for it? I'll piss on it."#
  Hewlett-Packard introduces the DeskJet Inkjet printer for $1000
Compaq's 1st laptop with VGA graphics for $5800 (12 MHz 286, 640kb RAM, 20-40 MB hard drive, 10" grayscale VGA screen)
Dec.: 45 million PCs in US #
June: Digital Research released DR-DOS #
Feb.: IEEE creates the 802.11 committee to set up a standard for wireless networking
Nov.: Morris Worm, 1st to spread using Internet, infects DEC VAX machines all over the world (~1/10 of 60,000 machines connected to Net), leading to creation of CERT #
Tetris introduced
Aug.: Yo! MTV Raps premieres #
1988
1989 Feb.: GNU General Public License 1.0#
1.2 million UNIX installations in world, & 4-5 million Unix users #
UNIX System V Release 4 ships, unifying System V, BSD, & Xenix
Cygnus Solutions, 1st business created around open source, formed #
Sept.: Mac Portable (16 MHz 68000 CPU, 1 MB RAM [up to 9 MB], 9.8" 640x400 B&W active matrix screen, 5-10 hr lead-acid battery, side trackball, 16 lbs) for $6,500 ($7,300 with 40 MB hard drive) #
Microsoft endorses Windows for low-end PCs & OS/2 for high-end PCs
Word for Windows ships #
Apr.: Intel 80486 (1.2 million transistors, level 1 cache) #
Dec.: 50 million PCs in US #
  World Wide Web invented by Tim Berners-Lee
100,000 computers on Internet
Nintendo's hand-held Game Boy, with 2.5 inch monochrome screen #
Sega Genesis for $189 (Motorola 68000 processor, 512 colors) #
Super Soaker introduced #
Nov.: Berlin Wall falls
1989
Unix Apple Microsoft Processors Hardware Software Networking Games Culture
1990 July: AT&T's Bell Labs announces Plan 9, an "improved" successor to Unix #
Oct.: Sun moves from SunOS to Solaris 1#
  1st software company to reach $1 billion in sales
May: Windows 3.0 released for $150, with support for more than 640kb of RAM, a better GUI, 16-color graphics, program & file managers, print manager, & 1st Windows SDK ("Software Development Kit") ##
Sept.: Ends OS/2 partnership with IBM #
Motorola 68040 (32-bit, 25 MHz, 1.2 million transistors)
AMD clones Intel's 386
486-based computers available for $6000: 25 MHz, 4MB RAM, 150 MB hard drive, floppy, 14-inch monitor
PCMCIA spec released
Dec.: 92 million PCs in US #
Dec.: Sun announces compiler now a separate purchase, leading developers to move to gcc #
Dec.: Tim Berners-Lee creates World Wide Web at CERN ##
    1990
1991 Jan.: Linus Torvalds buys 33MHz 386 PC with 40MB hard drive to play "Prince of Persia"##
June: GNU General Public License 2.0 released ##
Aug.: Linus Torvalds invites world to help develop Linux ###
Sept.: Linux 0.01 (64 kb) released ##
SUN Solaris 1 released
Dec.: 1.2 million Unix licenses shipped this year #
System 7 released: auto-ran multiple apps at same time, 256 color icons, aliases, separate folders for control panels & extensions, personal file sharing, virtual memory, & 32-bit addressing
QuickTime media software announced
Nov.: PowerBook 100 (16 MHz 68000 CPU, 20 MB hard drive, 2 MB RAM [up to 8 MB], 9' 640x400 passive matrix B&W screen, 2.5" thick, 5.1 lbs, SCSI Disk Mode allowed desktops to use it as external hard drive, $2500), PowerBook 140, & PowerBook 170 (25 MHz 68030 CPU, 20 MB hard drive, 2 MB RAM [up to 8 MB], 9.8" 640 x 400 active matrix B&W screen, 2.25" thick, 6.8 lbs, $4600) released with innovations such as CPU clocked back when on batteries & trackball in front center of keyboard; $1 billion sold in 1 year
June: DOS 5.0 released #
Oct.: Windows 3.0a released, with multimedia support ##
US FTC begins investigation for monopolistic practices
AMD introduces clone of Intel's i386DX
CD-ROM available for $400
PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) released as freeware by Phil Zimmerman
Ban on business use of the Internet lifted
Gopher released
Quantum Computer Services renames itself to America OnLine #
  Jan.: Gulf War begins
1991
1992 Jan.: Andy Tanenbaum attacks Linux, & Linus responds #
Jan.: 1st Linux FAQ & Usenet newsgroup alt.os.linux #
May: Linux 0.96 (174 kb) can run X Windows ##
1000 users of Linux
Dec.: Novell buys UNIX System Labs from AT&T for $150 million #
Dec.: Yggdrasil, 1st Linux distro, released for $50#
SuSE formed #
Jan.: CEO John Sculley coins "Personal Digital Assistant"#
Apple partners with IBM to create Taligent, a company designed to create Apple's next-generation OS
Apr.: Windows 3.1 introduced, with TrueType fonts, OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), WYSIWYG printing, & File Manager; 3 million sold in 2 months ##
Oct.: Windows for Workgroups 3.1 integrates networking, peer-to-peer file & printer sharing, Mail, & Schedule+##
  Creative Labs introduces the Sound Blaster Pro, the 1st stereo PC sound card
#
  Jan.: 727,000 nodes on Internet #
  May: The Real World premieres on MTV #
Michaelangelo virus #
1992
1993 Jan.: 1st mention of Linux Documentation Project #
Mar.: Courts rule (USL v. BSDI) that BSD isn't protected as a trade secret #
Mar.: Red Hat incorporated (as ACC Corp.) #
May: NetBSD makes 1st official release: 0.8#
July: Slackware released (oldest distro still in existence) #
Aug.: Debian Linux distro founded ##
Sept.: 75 companies agree to adopt Spec 1170 def. of UNIX API calls #
Oct.: Novell transfers UNIX trademark to Internation X/Open standards org #
Dec.: FreeBSD 1.0#
Feb.: After 50,000 machines, NeXT announces it's dropping hardware to focus on software #
Aug.: Newton MessagePad 100 PDA launched (640 kb RAM, 3 MB ROM stores apps & Newton OS, 20 MHz 32-bit ARM 610 CPU, 240x336 resolution, 2.8 x 4-inch LCD screen, 1 PCMCIA slot, 9600bps data transfer); only 80,000 sold over lifetime #
Discontinues Apple II after 17 years & 5,000,000 sold
Apr.: 25 million Windows users #
Aug.: Windows NT 3.1, a newly-created operating system for business & 1st to be full 32-bit, released (Also see NT 3.1 pic 2); 6 million lines of code ##
Dec.: MS-DOS 6.0 released #
Encarta, 1st multimedia encyclopedia for PC
25 million licensed Windows users #
Motorola PowerPC 601 introduced
Mar.: Intel Pentium (60 MHz, 32-bit, 3.2 million transistors) #
Pentium-based PCs available for $5000: 66 MHz, 16 MB RAM, 340 MB hard drive, floppy, 15-inch monitor
    Mar.: NCSA's Mosaic, the 1st popular graphical browser for the Web, released
Apr.: CERN announces that the World Wide Web is free, forever #
Network Solutions established to register domain names
Whitehouse.gov email addresses set up
    1993
1994 Mar.: Linux 1.0 kernel released ###
Mar.: Linux Journal \1ounded #
Apr.: SuSE Linux released in beta #
Red Hat Linux introduced #
Power Mac 6100, using the new PowerPC processor, introduced
System 7.5 released
Apple licenses Mac OS to clone makers
QuickTake 100, 1st consumer color digital camera under $1000
Announces Copland, the next generation OS
July: Settlement with FTC reached #
Dept. of Justice begins antitrust investigation
Sept.: Windows NT 3.5 released; 9 million lines of code ##
DOS 6.22 released
At 38, Gates is richest man in America with $9.35 B #
  1 in 3 US households has PC #
Iomega Zip Drive with 100MB storage media, for Macs (SCSI) & PCs (Parallel) #
$99Connectix QuickCam, black-and-white digital video camera at 320x240, for Macs
  Mosaic, renamed Netscape, founded
Oct.: Netscape Navigator 1.0 released (introducing cookies &
) # Oct.: 1st web ads (468x60 pixel banners) introduced on HotWired, for Zima, Club Med, & AT&T #
Netscape releases spec for SSL, the Secure Sockets Layer
David Filo & Jerry Yang create Yahoo! to organize their bookmarks
28.8 modem avail. for $330
1st widespread spam by Canter & Siegel
Radio stations begin broadcasting online
First Virtual, world's 1st cyberbank
1st secure e-commerce transaction: Sting's "Ten Summoner's Tales" for $12.48 + shipping
Dec.: 3000 web sites in world #
Entertainment Software Ratings Board created #
  1994
1995 Sept.: SCO buys UNIX Systems from Novell ##
Oct.: 1st release of OpenBSD #
DOS Compatibility Card released so Macs can run Windows
Apple sells its interest in Taligent to IBM (see 1992), abandoning that direction for it's next OS
Last release of A/UX (3.1.1) #
Last release of NeXTSTEP (3.3) #
Mar.: Microsoft Bob released & quickly fails #
August 24: Windows 95 released, a 32-bit operating system with a new interface, a new start menu, built-in inter-networking, & forced Internet Explorer 1.0 on users; DOS included; 1 million copies sell in 4 days, 7 million in 1 month ###
Aug.: Internet Explorer 1.0 web browser released #
Office 95 released, combining Word, Excel, PowerPoint, & Access
Signs "consent decree" with Dept. of Justice to end antitrust investigation
Company sales reach $6 B #
Gates becomes richest man in world with $12.9 B #
Intel Pentium at 120 MHz
Nov.: Intel Pentium Pro (150-200 MHz, 5.5 million transistors), 1st Intel processor specifically for servers #
IBM has 7.3% market share for PCs #
Iomega Jaz (1 GB cartridges)
IBM released OS/2 Warp 3
May: SUN announces Java programming language #
33.6 modems avail.
Web responsible for most traffic on Internet
Amazon.com launches from a 2-bedroom house
eBay hosts its 1st auction
Sony PlayStation introduced for $300 (32-bit processor, CD-ROM based, 640x480 resolution, 24-bit color) #
Aug.: Netscape's IPO begins dot-com stock frenzy as stock goes from $28 to $72 on opening day #
DVD announced
Sony Handycam DCR-VX1000 ($4000), 1st camcorder to capture digital video & 1st with FireWire port for transferring digital video to PC #
1995
1996 May: Linus Torvalds suggests Tux the penguin as Linux mascot #
June: Linux 2.0 kernel released #
June: Debian's 1st real release, 1.1 (Buzz), with 474 packages #
Oct.: KDE project announced #
Dec.: Debian releases 1.2 (Rex), with 848 packages #
Open Software Foundation merges with X/Open to become The Open Group, which owns the Unix trademark & manages Motif & CDE (Common Desktop Environment) #
Dec.: Steve Jobs returns as "Interim CEO" of Apple
Copland (see 1994) canceled
Aug.: Windows NT 4.0 released, with an interface based on Windows 95; 20 million lines of code ##
Nov.: Windows CE 1.0 released for handhelds, with a PIM, PocketWord, & PocketExcel ###
Office 97 released
  Jan.: 3Com's Palm Pilot 1000 PDA released; 350,000 ship during the year ##
July: ESCOM AG, owners of Amiga, files for bankruptcy #
  10,000,000 computers on Internet
56Kbps modem invented #
Mar.: Netscape 2.0 (supporting frames & JavaScript) released #
Netscape 3.0 released
Dec.: 500,000 web sites in world #
  Dec.: Alan Greenspan warns of "irrational exuberance"#
Beanie Babies & Tickle-Me Elmo introduced ;#
Motorola StarTAC, 1st stylish cell phone, introduced, with 2nd battery, vibrate mode, & clamshell design#
1996
1997 Jan.: Greylock & August Capital invest $6.25M in Cygnus Solutions, 1st VCs to invest in open source business #
Miguel de Icaza starts GNOME project #
May: Eric Raymond presents "The Cathedral and the Bazaar" talk #
June: Debian releases 1.3 (Bo), with 974 packages #
Apple buys NeXT
July: Mac OS 8 released, introducing a multi-threaded Finder, contextual menus, & support for USB & FireWire; PowerPC only starting with 8.5#
Internet Explorer 4.0 released
Invests $150 million in Apple in return for IE being default Web browser on Macs
Buys WebTV
Oct.: Justice Dep't. files antitrust suit for bundling IE with Windows ##
Nov.: Windows CE 2.0 released (32-bit color, TrueType fonts, Ethernet) ###
Intel Pentium II (7.5 million transistors, 233-300 MHz, 0.35 microns) #
Intel Pentium MMX released with multimedia extensions
Computer with Pentium II available for $4000: 233 MHz, 64 MB RAM, 4GB hard drive, floppy, CD-ROM, 17-inch monitor
Mar.: Gateway 2000 buys Amiga #
Sony Mavica MVC-FD5, 1st digital camera to save onto floppy disk, with 640x480 resolution (0.3 megapixel) & 2.5" LCD, for $600#
  June: Netscape Communicator 4.0 released #
Dec.: 1 million web sites in world #
Dec.: Slashdot opens #
  May: IBM's supercomputer Deep Blue beats Garry Kasparov at chess #
Patents on business methods recognized #
1997
1998 "Open Source" coined
July: Debian 2.0 (Hamm, with 1500+ packages) & KDE 1.0 released ##
July: Mandrake created #
Aug.: Linus Torvalds on cover of Forbes#
Oct.: FreeBSD 3.0#
iMac rolled out for $1299 (PowerPC 233 MHz, 32 MB RAM, 4 GB hard drive, & no floppy)
System 8.5 introduced, with Sherlock search utility & 32-bit icons, running on PowerPC only #
May 18: Antitrust lawsuit filed by 20 states Attorneys General & DC ##
June: Windows 98 released, supporting DVDs & USB, & integrating Internet Explorer Web browser into operating system & even the desktop##
June: CIH, a highly destructive virus, 1st appears; it's been used again & again by other viruses #
August & Sept.: Videotapes of Bill Gates' deposition in the antitrust suit make Microsoft look very bad #
MSFT ends year at $35, up 140%, while sales hit $15.2 billion #
Intel Celeron
Intel Xeon
Research in Motion intros the RIM Blackberry 850 Wireless Handheld, with wireless delivery of email & a QWERTY keyboard ##
Diamond Multimedia Rio PMP300, 1st portable MP3 player, with 32 MB of storage (1/2 hr of music!) #
Mar.: BeOS released #
Feb.: Netscape open sources its Web browser as the Mozilla Project #
Apr.: Netscape releases Navigator 5.0 source code #
Nov.: AOL buys Netscape for $4.3 billion #
Sept.: Google Inc. founded #
Nintendo's Game Boy Color hand-held video game system, with 56 simultaneous colors #
Lego Mindstorms Robotics Invention System 1.0, do-it-yourself robotics #
Furby introduced #
1998
1999 IBM declares support for Linux, legitimizing it
LinuxWorld 1 conference opens
Jan.: Linux kernel 2.2 released #
Aug.: Red Hap IPO, 8th largest 1st day gain in Wall Street history ##
Oct.: Mac OS 9 released, 1st Mac OS that could be updated over the Net #
iMac available in 5 colors
Mac OS X Server 1.0 released, 1st Apple server in 5 years, includes WebObjects, QuickTime server, developer tools, Apache web server, and network administration tools
Announces 802.11b Wi-Fi wireless networking—AirPort—on all new iBook laptops
Mar.: Melissa, 1st destructive mass-mailing virus, spreads rapidly using Word & Outlook ##
May: Windows 98 SE ("Second Edition") released, with IE 5##
July: Windows NT 5.0 misses ship date, so renamed Windows 2000#
November 5: Judge Thomas Penfield Jackson issues findings of fact in antitrust suit, stating that Microsoft is a predatory monopoly #
Dec.: MSFT's all-time highest market cap #
Feb.: Intel Pentium III (450-500 MHz, 9.5 million transistors, 0.25 microns) #
Dec.: Gateway 2000 sells Amiga to Amino Development #
Microsoft Intellimouse Explorer, 1st mainstream optical mouse #
  business.com sold for $7.5 million
Sony Aibo ERS-110 ($1500), a cute robotic dog with AI #
Y2K bug fears
Dec.: Amazon.com's Jeff Bezos is TIME's Person of the Year #
TiVo released #
1999
Unix Apple Microsoft Processors Hardware Software Networking Games Culture
2000 Aug.: Debian releases 2.2 (Potato), with 3900+ packages #
Sun releases Solaris 8 OS
Konqueror 1.0 web browser released
G4 Cube rolled out (8" x 8 " x 8 ")
Feb.: Windows 2000 released (Professional, Server, Advanced Server, & Datacenter Server) ###
May: ILOVEYOU virus uses social engineering to get people to open infected attachment in Outlook that steals passwords & launches DDOS attack on White House web site; costs >$10 billion to clean up ##
June: Windows ME (Millenium Edition) released, last of the DOS-based operating systems from Microsoft ##
June: Windows CE 3.0 released #
June: Judge Jackson order breakup of company into one for OS & one for apps, but later overturned ##
Ballmer becomes President & CEO, while Gates becomes Chairman & Chief Software Architect
.NET unveiled, but no one is sure what it is
C#, a Java-like programming language, announced
AMD Athlon hits 1 GHz before Intel
Oct.: Pentium 4 introduced (1.4 & 1.5 GHz) #
Transmeta Crusoe, 1st smart processor
Nov.: M-Systems DiskOnKey, 1st USB flash drive available from 8-32 MB #
Dec.: 168 million PCs in US; 60% of homes #
OpenOffice.org formed
  Mar.: Sony PlayStation 2 for $300###
Mar.: NASDAQ peaks at 5132.52#
Apr.: Internet stock bubble bursts #
2000
2001 Linux kernel 2.4 released #
Jan.: Apple introduces iTunes, which organizes digital music, rips CDs into digital music, & plays streaming audio #
Mar.: Mac OS X (Cheetah) rolled out, combining Unix under the hood & the ease of use of the Mac GUI, including iMovie & iTunes #
Nov.: The iPod, a portable digital music player, released for $400 (5 GB storage capacity, Mac only, & requiring iTunes); 125,000 sold by the end of the year #
Feb.: Steve Ballmer says Linux is "a cancer" & "an intellectual property destroyer"#
July: Code Red worm infects 10s of 1000s of Windows servers running IIS ##
July: Sircam worm released, spreading through email & network shares #
Sept.: Nimda worm appears, spreading via email, network shares, or visiting web sites (using IIS & IE) #
Oct.: Windows XP introduced, with a new candy-colored interface, built-in Windows Messenger for IM, intrusive Passport registrations, & Product Activation, forcing customers to register or the computer stops working; 50 million lines of code ###
Oct.: Internet Explorer 6.0 released
Office XP, also with Product Activation
Nov.: Settles antitrust suit with US government #
Code Red worm & SirCam virus infect 10s of 1000s of computers
Intel Pentium 4 (1.7 GHz, 2.4 billion cycles/sec., 42 million transistors)
Dec.: 182 million PCs in US #
  100,000,000 computers on Internet
Oct.: Grand Theft Auto III, allowing gamers to explore (& shootup) enormous Liberty City in 3D #
Nov.: Microsoft releases Xbox game console for $300 (733 MHz Pentium III, 250 MHz nVidia graphics, 8 GB hard drive, broadband Internet connection, games on dual-layer DVDs) ##
Nintendo's GameCube for $200 (405 MHz PowerPC processor) #
AOL buys TimeWarner
2001
2002 July: Debian releases 3.0 (Woody), with 8500 packages #
KDE 3.0, a GUI for Linux, released
Red Hat 8.0 released
New iMacs released, with a radical design & flat-panel monitors for $1300 (800 MHz PowerPC G4, SuperDrive for burning CDs & DVDs)
Mac OS X 10.2 (Jaguar) hits the markets
July: Apple announces iPods for Windows #
Judge Kollar-Kotelly (US District Court—D.C.) approves the antitrust settlement
Oct.: Windows XP Media Center Edition released, allowing users to view pictures, listen to music, & record TV#
Nov.: Windows XP Tablet PC Edition released #
Nov.: Microsoft & US Gov't settle antitrust suit #
Intel Pentium 4 (2.4 GHz, 55 million transistors)
  Sept.: Phoenix 0.1 released (later Firefox) #
June: Mozilla 1.0 released #
  14-inch wide iRobot Roomba Intelligent Floorvac, 1st commercially successful domestic robot #
2002
2003 Red Hat 9.0 released
Mar.: Caldera (DBA The SCO Group) sues IBM for copyright violations in Linux #
Sept.: Red Hat announces the end of free Red Hat & the birth of Fedora, a community-oriented distribution of Linux #
Nov.: Fedora Core 1 released (2.4 kernel, GNOME 2.4.0-1) #
Novell buys SUSE
Linux kernel 2.4 released
Apr.: Apple unveils the iTunes online music store for Mac users only, at $0.99 per track or $9.99 per album, & a library of 200,000 songs #
May: 1 week after launching, iTunes Music Store sells 1,000,000th song #
June: 1,000,000th iPod sold #
Oct.: iTunes & iTunes Music Store now works with Windows; 13,000,000th songs sold #
Mac OS X 10.3 (Panther) released
Apple releases Safari, its own Web browser
Jan.: Slammer worm infects 75,000 machines running SQL Server or MSDE in 10 minutes ##
Feb.: MSFT stock splits for 9th time; 1 1986 share now 288 shares #
Mar.: Windows 2003 Server released (Standard, Datacenter, Enterprise, & Web), with far better security out of the box, particularly a locked down IIS##
Aug.: Blaster worm #
Aug.: Sobig worm sets record for number of emails it generates & installs Proxy Server for spammers' usage #
IE 6 announced as last standalone version of Web browser; in future, you must upgrade the OS to get a new browser
Sept.: AMD launches Athlon 64, 1st 64-bit desktop chip #
Intel announces Centrino, specifically for laptops (fast, power savings, wireless)
Pentium M (.13 microns, 77 million transistors, 600MHz—1.6GHz) based on PIII released, designed for low power & great performance
    Mozilla splits into Mozilla Firefox (browser) & Mozilla Thunderbird (email)
AOL officially kills the Netscape Web browser
Amazon ships 1 million copies of Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, largest one-day distribution of an item sold through e-commerce
    2003
2004 Jan.: XFree86 announces changes to license, leading to widespread abandonment of the software #
May: Kenneth Brown & Alexis de Tocqueville Institute release "study" claiming that Linus Torvalds plagiarized Linux; they are widely mocked & rebuked #
Governments change to Linux: Brazil (April #), City of Munich begins switching 14,000 city computers (June #)
Linux 2.6 kernel released
Major Linux distros released: Novell Linux Desktop 9 (November #), Gentoo Linux 2004.0, Mandrakelinux 10.0, SUSE Linux 9.1 & 9.2 Professional, OpenBSD 3.5, KNOPPIX 3.4—3.7, Fedora Core 2 (2.6 kernel) & 3 (Nov.: GNOME 2.8, 2.6.9 kernel, Firefox #), Slackware 10.0, Conectiva Linux 10, Ubuntu 4.10 (October), & Xandros Desktop 3
KDE 3.2 (February) & 3.3 (August), & GNOME 2.6 (March) & 2.8 (September) released
Sun open sources Solaris 10
Jan.: iPod Mini, a much smaller, 4 GB version in 5 colors with a touch-sensitive click wheel, for $249#
Jan.: 2,000,000th iPod sold #
May: 3,000,000th iPod sold #
July: iTunes Music Store sells 100,000,000th song #
Aug.: 1,000,000 songs in the iTunes Music Store library #
Aug.: iPod has 58% of US digital music player business #
Sept.: Apple releases iMac G5, marketed as a computer "from the creators of iPod"#
Oct.: iPods are 82% of all digital music players, with nearest hard drive competitor Creative at 3.7%#
Oct.: 150,000,000 iTunes Music Store downloads #
Oct.: iPod Photo, which displays digital photos & album art on a 2-inch color screen#
Steve Jobs operated on for cancer
Jan.: MyDoom becomes fastest-spreading email mass mailing worm ever, creating BotNets & launching DDOS attacks on Microsoft's web site #
Feb.: Stolen Windows source code posted on Internet #
Mar.: Witty worm exploits holes in Internet Security Systems' software & is 1st worm to carry destructive payload #
May: Sasser worm hits Windows 2000 & XP machines, forcing shutdowns at Delta Air Lines, British Coast Guard, Goldman Sachs, the European Commission & Lund University Hospital's X-Ray department ##
Aug.: Windows XP Service Pack 2 released, with new security settings & a Security Center#
Aug.: Windows XP Starter Edition, a crippled version of Windows (max. 800x600 resolution, no home networking, only 1 user, only 3 programs or 3 windows open at a time) for $36, announced for Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, with Russia & India following in September #
MyDoom, the fastest-spreading virus ever, released
Microsoft releases Desktop Search in response to Google
Legal settlements (& payouts) reached with InterTrust, Novell, Sun, shareholders, & many others
Company sales at $36.8 B; Gates worth $48 B #
Intel released Prescott, a smaller P4 (.09 microns, 125 million transistors, 2.8-3.4GHz) with poor benchmarks & huge power requirements
Dec.: 223 million PCs in US #
IBM sells PC division to Chinese-owned Lenovo
Games released: Doom3 (August) #, Half-Life 2 (October) #, Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, giving gamers a whole state & 3 cities to explore (October) #, Halo 2 (November) #
Other major open source software released: GIMP 2.0, X.Org X11R6.7, GCC 3.4, Mono 1.0, PHP 5.0, SpamAssassin, & Python 2.4 3.0, Mozilla Thunderbird 1.0
US Congress passes CAN-SPAM, but by end of year, spam has increased to at least 75% (& perhaps 90%) of all email #
Apr.: 57 million US taxpayers file electronically
Nov.: Mozilla Firefox 1.0 released; 10 million copies are downloaded in a month & IE loses 5% of market share #
Google opens Orkut (a social networking service), relaunches Blogger, announces Gmail (on 1 April) #, buys & frees image editing tool Picasa, goes public in a popular IPO (GOOG), releases Desktop Search, acquires satellite imaging co. Keyhole, announces Google Print, launches Google Scholar—& indexes 8 billion pages
Amazon launches A9 search engine (a very enhanced Google)
Blogging gets noticed by the media & the public
Dec.: 70 million web sites in world #
Sony's PlayStation Portable #
Jan.: Mars Rover lands #
DJ Danger Mouse releases an unauthorized mix of Jay Z & the Beatles: The Grey Album
MPAA begins suing 'net users swapping movies
Creative Commons releases version 2.0 of licenses
Motorola Razr V3 ($500): incredibly stylish, with 2.2" color LCD, 640x480 camera with 4X digital zoom, MPEG-4 video playback, & Bluetooth-enabled #
2004
2005 Major Linux distros released: SUSE 9.3 Professional, Libranet 3.0, Knoppix 3.8, Ubuntu 5.04 (April) & 5.10 (October)
KDE 3.4 & GNOME 2.10 released
Major software releases: OpenOffice.org 2.0 (October)
Apr.: Mandrake purchases Connectiva & announces new name: Mandriva #
June: Sun releases the newly open source Solaris #
June: Fedora 4 (1st distro compiled with GCC4) #
June: Debian releases 3.1 (Sarge), with 15,400 packages #
Jan: iPod Shuffle released, a tiny, cheap iPod without a screen #
Apr.: Mac OS X 10.4 ("Tiger") released, featuring Spotlight search #
June: Apple announces switch from PowerPC processors to Intel #
Sept.: iPod Nano announced, a 4 GB flash-based player with an easily-scratched screen #
Nov.: SQL Server 2005 & Visual Studio 2005 released #
Windows XP x64 Professional released #
June: AMD sues Intel for unfair competition #
January 1: Wal-Mart & Dept. of Defense mandates that suppliers implement RFID go into effect #
Sept.: Massachusetts state government standardizes on Open Document Format instead of Word #
  "Hot Coffee" mod discovered in Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, which allows character to have sex; controversy erupts #
May: CardSystems' security lapse exposes 40 million credit card numbers to hackers #
2005
2006 April: Scott McNealy steps down as Sun's CEO; Jonathan Schwartz takes his place #
June: Libranet Linux shuts down #
October: Portland 1.0, common interfaces for KDE & GNOME, released #
November: Sun announces it is releasing Java under the GPL #
June: Ubuntu 6.06 "Dapper Drake"#
October: Ubuntu 6.10 "Edgy Eft"#
Operating systems released: Gentoo 2006.0 (Feb), Fedora Core 5 (Mar), Mandriva One (Mar), Open BSD 3.9 (May), PC-BSD 1.0 (May), SUSE Linux 10.1 (May), SUSE Linux Enterprise 10 (July), Freespire 1.0 (Aug), Mandriva Linux 2007 (Sept), Slackware 11 (Oct), Fedora Core 6 (Oct), gNewSense 1 (Nov), OpenSUSE 10.2 (Dec) #
Notable software released: SeaMonkey 1.0 (Jan), GCC 4.1 (Feb), GnuCash 2.0 (July) #
Jan. 10: Intel-based iMac ships (17" LCD at 1440x900 resolution, 1.83 GHz Intel Core Duo, 512 MB RAM, 160 GB hard drive, 128 MB ATI Radeon video card) for $1299##
Feb. 14: Intel-based MacBook Pro ships (15.4" display at 1440x900 resolution, 2.0 GHz Intel Core Duo, 512 MB RAM, 80 GB hard drive, 128 MB ATI Radeon video card + extras) for $1999##
Feb. 28: Intel-based Mac Mini ships (1.5 GHz Intel Core Solo, 512 MB RAM, 60 GB hard drive, 128 MB ATI Radeon video card) for $599##
April 5: Boot Camp released, allowing dual-booting of Mac OS & Windows (& Linux!) on Apple hardware
May 16: Intel-based MacBook ships (13.3" display at 1280x800 resolution, 1.83 GHz Intel Core Duo, 512 MB RAM, 60 GB hard drive, 64 MB Intel 950 video card + extras) for $1099##
Aug.: Intel-based Xserve & Mac Pro rolled out, a little over a year after announcing the Intel transition #
Sept.: Apple offer movies from Disney, Pixar, Touchstone, & Miramax through the iTunes Store ($9.99-$14.99), with 125,000 sold in 1 week #
Sept.: 2nd-generation iPod Shuffle announced, a tiny iPod with 1 GB of storage & its own clip #
June: Gates announces his intentions to step down by 2008; still richest man in world with $51 B #
November: Microsoft announces a cross-licensing & promotion deal with Novell Linux, including a sketchy patent agreement #
August: AMD announces that it's buying video card maker ATI #
  May: OpenDocument format becomes an ISO standard #
June: Ethereal changes name to Wireshark #
Oct: Firefox 2.0 released #
  March: Wikipedia reaches 1,000,000 articles #
2006
2007   June: iPhone released #
iPod Touch announced, with multitouch, WiFi, and much more—basically, an iPhone without the phone #
Microsoft releases Vista to mostly ho-hum acceptance #
  Michael Dell returns as CEO after his company loses marksetshare to HP #
Acer buys Gateway for $710 million #
Google buys DoubleClick #
Google releases Android, its software for smart phones #
Sept.: Skype's telephony network goes down after a Microsoft update #
  Jan.: TJX systems (protected with WEP) are hacked & 100 million credit cards are exposed ##
Viacom sues YouTube for $1 billion, alleging copyright violations #
2007
2008                   2008
2009                   2009
Unix Apple Microsoft Processors Hardware Software Networking Games Culture