|RAJAJI- NEHRU AND KAMRAJ|
|KAMRAJ TAKING OATH AS CONGRESS CHIEF MINISTER OF MADRAS(TAMIL NADU)|
Mr.Kamaraj welcoming Iron man Patel.
No village remained without a primary school and no panchayat without a high school. Kamaraj strove to eradicate illiteracy by introducing free and compulsory education up to the eleventh standard. He introduced the Mid-day Meal Scheme to provide at least one meal per day to the lakhs of poor school children (first time in the whole world). He introduced free school uniforms to weed out caste, creed and class distinctions among young minds.
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|KAMRAJ -1961 OPENING M.R.F.|
During British regime the education was only 7 percent. But in Kamaraj's period it was 37%
. During Rajaji's period there were 12000 schools in the state. Whereas it was 27000 in the period of Kamaraj.
|KAMRAJ ,WHO WAS BACHELOR ,WITH CHILDREN|
|KAMRAJ WITH QUEEN ELIZABETH|
. During Rajaji's period there were 12000 schools in the state. Whereas it was 27000 in the period of Kamaraj.
Number of dams were constructed under his rule are:-Manimuthar Dam,Vaikai Dam.Aliyar Dam.Sathanur Dam.Krishnagiri Dam.In 1957-61 1,628 Tanks were de-silted under Small Irrigation Scheme 2000 wells were digged with outlets. Long term loans with 25% subsidy were given to farmers. Apart from formers who are having dry lands were given oil engines , electric pump sets on installment basis.
DRAVIDA KAZHAGAM ---THE PARENT PARTY OF ALL DRAVIDA PARTIES--- [D.M.K and A.D.M.K.}
Brahmin and non-Brahmin divide:-
|Caste group||Deputy collectors||Sub judges||District Munsifs||% of total|
|Europeans and Eurasians||11||nil||3||.1|
|Elections||Total seats up for election||Seats won||Total seats available for nomination||Members nominated||Result||Party President|
|1926||98||21||34||0||Lost||Raja of Panagal|
|1930||98||35||34||Won||P. Munuswamy Naidu|
|1934||98||34||Lost||Raja of Bobbili|
|1937||215||18||46||7||Lost||Raja of Bobbili|
|1939-1946||No elections held||E. V. Ramasamy|
|1946||215||0||46||0||Did not participate||P. T. Rajan|
|1952||375||1||NA||NA||Lost||P. T. Rajan|
|President of Justice Party ||Term start (year)||Term End (year)|
|Sir P. Theagaroya Chetty||1917||23 June 1925|
|Raja of Panagal||1925||16 December 1928|
|P. Munuswamy Naidu||6 August 1929||11 October 1932|
|Raja of Bobbili||11 October 1932||29 December 1938|
|E. V. Ramaswami||29 December 1938||27 August 1944|
|B. Ramachandra Reddi||1944||1945|
|P. T. Rajan||1945||1957|
Transformation into Dravidar Kazhagam[D.K.]:-
British policies - seeds of communal division[DIVIDE AND RULE]
government policy-(OF DIVIDE &RULE)
As a leading Indian scholar, Ambedkar had been invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, which was preparing the Government of India Act 1919. At this hearing, Ambedkar argued for creating separate electorates and reservations for untouchables and other religious communitiesWhen the British agreed with Ambedkar and announced the awarding of separate electorates, Gandhi began a fast while imprisoned in the Yerwada Central Jail of Pune in 1932 against the separate electorate for untouchables only. Gandhi's fast provoked huge civil unrest across India, and orthodox Hindu leaders, Congress politicians and activists such as Madan Mohan Malaviya and Palwankar Baloo organized joint meetings with Ambedkar and his supporters at Yeravada. Fearing a communal reprisal and genocide of untouchables, Ambedkar agreed under massive coercion from the supporters of Gandhi. This agreement, which saw Gandhi end his fast, was called the Poona Pact. As a result of the agreement, Ambdekar dropped the demand for separate electorates that was promised through the British Communal Award prior to Ambedkar's meeting with Gandhi.(FROM WIKI )
Madras Presidency, India) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry , India. It is a Dravidian party founded by C. N. Annadurai as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam (known as Justice Party till 1944) headed by Periyar. Since 1969, DMK is headed by M Karunanidhi, the prior Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Rajagopalachari at a rally in Ootacamund, 193
In August 1944, Periyar created the 'Dravida Kazhagham' out of the Justice Party
Over the years, many disputes arose between Periyar and his followers. In 1949, several of his followers led by C. N. Annadurai, decided to split from Dravidar Kazhagham, after an aged Periyar married a young woman Maniammai and anointed his young wife to act as his successor to lead the party, superseding senior party leaders. Until then E. V. K. Sampath, the nephew of Periyaron 17 September 1949 along with V. R. Nedunchezhiyan, K.A. Mathiazhagan, K. Anbazhagan, N.V. Natarajan, E. V. K. Sampath and thousands of others in Robinson park in Royapuram in Chennai announced the formation of the DMK.
, was considered as his political heir
, was considered as his political heir
|Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam|
|Leader in Lok Sabha||T. R. Baalu|
|Headquarters||Anna Arivalayam, Anna Salai, Chennai – 600018|
|Newspaper||Murasoli & The Rising Sun|
|Labour wing||Labour Progressive Federation|
|Alliance||National Democratic Alliance (1999–2004) |
United Progressive Alliance (2004–present)
MGR's entryM. G. Ramachandran ("MGR") joined the DMK, popularised the party flag and symbol which at that time stood for secession from India by showing it in his movies. MGR was a member of the DMK, and he was seen as an icon of the DMK and spread its message through films like Anbe Vaa.[citati DMK entered the electoral fray rather unsuccessfully in 1957 with even senior leader V. R. Nedunchezhiyan losing from Salem although M Karunanidhi won after initially having opposed all-Indian government later supporting only those parties which promised to help its secession from India cause.
1960sAnnadurai wanted a separate Dravida Nadu but the DMK changed its stance with the Chinese invasion in 1962 and suspended its demand for the length of the war and supported India raising funds for the war. When the war ended, nationalistic feelings were so strong that DMK gave up the separate Dravida nation idea.
The Anti-Hindi agitations of 1965 forced the central government to abandon its efforts to impose Hindi as the only official language of the country; still Hindi imposition continued as Indian government employees are asked to write as much as 65% of the letters and memoranda in Hindi.
In 1967, DMK came to power in Madras province 18 years after its formation and 10 years after it had first entered electoral politics. This began the Dravidian era in Madras province which later became Tamil Nadu.
CN Annadurai died. After his death, there came the power tussle between M Karunanidhi and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan. Most of the elected MLAs of DMK, including leaders like Mathialagan, Nanjil Manoharan and the celluloid hero MGR favoured Karunanidhi as CM
in preference to Nedunchezhiyan, the Senior leader after Anna. To pacify V. R. Nedunchezhiyan a new post called party president was created for M Karunanidhi and V. R. Nedunchezhiyan was the post of general secretary . MGR was appointed as the Treasurer of the Party.
During the Indian President election, there was divided opinion between the leaders of Indian National Congress. Though the party nominated Dr.Sanjiva Reddy as the Official Candidate, the then Prime Minister, Mrs.Indira Gandhi had suddenly switched her allegiance to Dr.V.V.Giri, the Opposition-sponsored Candidate. She had also advised all party elected members to vote according to their conscience. Dr.V.V.Giri was elected as the President of India with the support of Mrs.Indira Gandhi. This has resulted in the split of Congress Party and in October 1969. Senior Leaders like Morarji Desai, Athulya Ghosh, Kamarajar, S K Patil and Nijalingappa on the one side as Congress (Organisation) and Indira Gandhi, Shankar Dayal Sharma, Jagjivan Ram, C Subramaniam on the Other Side as Congress (Indira). The DMK, led by Mr.Karunanidhi took a stance to support Mrs.Indira Gandhi in certain reforms like abolition of privy purse, nationalisation of Banks.
In 1971 election, the DMK fought in alliance with Congress (Indira)and the Opposition alliance which consisted of the two Senior National Leaders, Rajaji and Kamarajar was termed as a strong alliance and was widely supported by Media to re-capture power in Tamil Nadu. However, the DMK emerged victorious with a vast majority of 183 seats out of 234. The Opposition Grand alliance could capture only 25 seats.
MGR's exitM. G. Ramachandran (MGR) who was a popular actor and the then party treasurer had played a vital part in popularizing the party's ideologies. The political feud between MGR and the party president Karunanidhi emerged as an aftermath of the latter calling himself "Mujib of Tamil Nadu". In 1972, MGR called for a boycott of the party's General Council. With the crisis falling into call for corruption probe by MGR, he was eventually suspended from the General Council. Thus emerged a new party All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK).
Post-MGRIn April 1974, the DMK government brought in a resolution in the House urging the Centre to accept the Rajamannar Committee recommendations on state autonomy and amend the Constitution of India to pave the way for a true federal system.
After MGR's death in December 1987, AIADMK split into two factions between Janaki (MGR's wife) and Jayalalithaa. DMK returned to power in 1989 State assembly elections. Karunanidhi took over as chief minister in January 1989. Subsequent to this, the LTTE "sent personal emissaries to Karunanidhi for seeking his active support in their battle against the IPKF".
Then in 1991 elections are arranged to be held for both State and Central government. In 21 May 1991 Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, near Chennai in an election campaign meeting. It was later found the he has been killed by suicide bomber from LTTE, citing IPKF atrocities in Srilanka as a reason.
This led to sympathy wave favor of AIADMK – Congress alliance and DMK is deprived of any seats in the Parliament. This brings the rise of political rival J.Jayalalithaa to the DMK.
The party was founded in 1972 by M. G. Ramachandran (popularly known as MGR), a veteran star of the Tamil film industry and a popular politician, as a breakaway from the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) led by M. Karunanidhi, the then chief minister of Tamil Nadu, owing to differences between the two. Relations between the two parties have been marked by mutual contempt.
Ulagam pirandhadhu...' song from 'Paasam'
Till the time MGR, also known as Puratchi Thalaivar (Revolutionary Leader), was alive, the AIADMK continued to be dominated by one man, despite the presence of formidable leaders like V. R. Nedunchezhiyan, R. M. Veerappan, K. V. Kandaswamy, S. Thirunavukkarasu, and J.Jayalalithaa.
The government led by the DMK, was dismissed by a Central promulgation after MGR filed a petition seeking enquiry into corruption charges. The Central Government was held by the Congress Party, an ally of the AIADMK. The party came to power in 1977 after trouncing DMK in the next elections to the legislative assembly in the state and MGR was named the Chief Minister. He was sworn in as chief minister of the state on June 30, 1977. In 1979, AIADMK became the first Dravidian and non-congress party to be part of the Union Cabinet, when two AIADMK Members of Parliament, Satyavani Muthu and Aravinda Bala Pajanor, joined the short-lived Charan Singh Ministry which followed the Morarji Desai-led Janata Party government of 1977-79.
Relations between the Congress party and the AIADMK slowly became strained and the DMK got closer to the Congress Party. In the mid-term parliamentary elections of January 1980, the Congress Party aligned with the DMK and the alliance won 37 out of 39 parliamentary seats in the state; the AIADMK had just two seats.
After returning to power, the Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi's government dismissed a number of state governments belonging to the opposition parties, including Dr. M. G. Ramachandran's government. Elections to the state legislature were held in late May 1980. Reversing the trend of Lok Sabha elections, the AIADMK won a comfortable majority in the state assembly by winning 129 seats out of 234. MGR was sworn in as chief minister for the second time on June 9, 1980.
In 1984, even with MGR's failing health and subsequent hospitalization abroad, the party managed to win the state elections in alliance with the Congress party that had improved relations with the AIADMK. Many political historians consider MGR's persona and charisma at this point of time as "infallible", and a logical continuation of his on-screen "good lad" image, strengthened by his mythical status in the minds of the masses. The victory of the AIADMK-Congress combine in the assembly elections seemed so certain that the DMK supremo M. Karunanidhi refrained from contesting the assembly elections of 1984. MGR continued to enjoy popular support in his third tenure, which ended with his demise on December 24, 1987.
Bharat Ratna received by MGR's wife Janaki Ramachandran on his behalf
Succession crisisJanaki Ramachandran subsequently rose to the party's leadership and led the government as the state's first woman chief minister until the state assembly was suspended and President's rule imposed. The party, in the absence of a personality of MGR's calibre, began to crumble, with infighting, and broke into two factions, one under Janaki Ramachandran and the other under J. Jayalalithaa, a former film star and associate of MGR. The state elections in 1989 saw DMK regaining power with Karunanidhi at the helm. The factions led by Jayalalitha and Janaki merged in 1988 under the former's leadership. The DMK government was dismissed in 1990 by the central government led by prime minister Chandra Shekhar Singh, an ally of the AIADMK at that time, with accusations that the constitutional machinery in the state had broken down.
J. Jayalalitha era
Music - M.S. Viswanathan
Singers - SPB, Jayalalitha
Lyricist - Vaali
Year - 1973
The AIADMK swept to power in the elections of 1991. Many political observers have ascribed the landslide victory to the anti-incumbent wave arising out of the assassination of Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi by suspected Tamil separatists fighting for a homeland in neighbouring Sri Lanka. The ensuing government was accused of large-scale corruption, but Jayalalithaa managed to hold on to power for a full term of five years, after which she lost the next election to the DMK, in 1996. The DMK held power till 2001, when Jayalalithaa won the next election to become chief minister once again. She has been very vocal in opposing the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, or Tamil Tigers) since then and has had a wishy-washy political association with Subramaniam Swamy. Some AIADMK cadres were accused of being behind the acid-attack on Subramaniam Swamy's acquaintance, Chandralekha, an IAS officer.
In her second term as chief minister, Ms. Jayalalitha avoided the blunders she committed during the first term. However, she was plagued by corruption cases related to her earlier rule and had to sit out of the government for some time. After having been cleared by the courts she became chief minister again. She undertook economic reforms and took many popular decisions such as banning of lottery tickets, restricting the liquor and sand quarrying business to government agencies and banning tobacco product sales near schools and colleges. She also took action against gangsters, trouble makers, and striking government employees, and improved law and order in the state.
She sent a special task force to the Satyamangalam forests in October 2004 to hunt down notorious sandalwood smuggler Veerappan. The operation was successful as Veerappan was finally killed by the task force on 18 October 2004.
However, in the Parliamentary elections of 2004, the party lost all their seats to the opposition coalition comprising all major opposition parties in the state.
In the assembly elections of 2006, in spite of media speculations of a hung assembly, the AIADMK was pushed out of power owing to big sweep by the DMK led by M Karunanidhi. It managed to hold on to only 61 assembly seats.
In the recently concluded 2011 elections, the party won by massive 146 seats making it a single largest party in the state.Only because of Jayalalitha, her ally DMDK became the second largest party leaving DMK to third.
Miss. Jayalalithaa won from her home constituency Srirangam.
Decline of Congress Party’s popularity
Jayalalitha - JAGI BADAN MEIN JAWALA - IZZAT 1968
SINGER - MOHD, RAFI , ASHA BOSLE
MUSIC - LAXMIKANT PYARELAL
LYRIES - SAHIR LUDHAYANVI
CAST - DHARMENDRA , JAI LALITA
Manamagal had dialogue by MR. Karunanidhi
|Padmini, Lalitha, S. V. Sahasranamam, T. S. Balaiah, N. S. Krishnan, T. A. Mathuram and T. S. Durairaj|
socially relevant film From Manamagal
After his 30-month sojourn in prison following the sensational Lakshmikantham Murder Case, N. S. Krishnan quickly regained his popularity in Tamil cinema. In fact, his star shone brighter and he soon came to be hailed as a cult figure, what with his political links and reformist attitude. His film Manamagal was socially relevant and explored the status of women in Hindu society and the problems they faced for no fault of theirs.
Based on a popular Malayalam play ‘Suprabha’ by noted playwright Munshi Paramu Pillai, Manamagal had dialogue by Mu. Karunanidhi. NSK directed the film, besides playing the role of a social reformer.