Apoploxy - Stroke
Chrisom - Infant death
Consumption - Tuberculosis
Falling Sickness - Epilepsy
French Pox - Venereal Diseases, specifically Gonorrhea and Syphilis which weren't always decipherable to the Enlightened eye. One supposed cure was to consummate with an uninfected person.
Goiter - Enlarged thyroid gland usually due to iodine deficiency. This could, in turn, cause bulging eyes.
Gout - A form of Arthritis due to imbalance of uric acid. Aristocrats would commonly find themselves ailing of Gout due to their taste in rich foods.
Hemiplegy - Palsy, paralysis of one side of the body usually due to Apoploxy.
Looseness - Dysentery
Lues Venera - Venereal Disease
Lung Fever - Pneumonia
Morsal - Gangrene
Puerperal Fever/Sepsis - Sepsis of the womb or birth canal
Rickets - Lack of vitamin D or calcium resulting in bow-legs
Thrush - Infection of the mouth and/or throat
Tympany - Tumors