1850 PHOTO SHOWING ELECTRIC STIMULUS AND MUSCULAR CONTRACTION

Faradisation du muscle frontal

"In the 1850 'Bulletin de l'Academie,' Duchenne made his first public reference to his lengthy study of the relationship between muscular contraction [facial] and expressed emotion, via a process he delineated as 'faradism,' in which electrical stimmulus is applied directly to or through the skin by rheopore. Duchenne enacted this mechanism on both the bodies of his patients and still-malleable cadavers which were photographed during the electrical activity in order to isolate and classify their muscular actions."