Partitioning India "The British government and Mountbatten must bear a large part of the blame for this tragedy.[Memoirs of a British civil servant]Christopher Beaumont

Christopher Beaumont

[ In 1947, Beaumont was private secretary to the senior British judge, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, who was chairman of the Indo-Pakistan Boundary Commission]


But Beaumont - who later in life was a circuit judge in the U.K. - is most scathing about how partition affected the Punjab, which was split between India and Pakistan.
"The British government and Mountbatten must bear a large part of the blame for this tragedy." "The Punjab partition was a disaster," he writes. "Geography, canals, railways and roads all argued against dismemberment. The trouble was that Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs were an integrated population so that it was impossible to make a frontier without widespread dislocation. Thousands of people died or were uprooted from their homes in what was in effect a civil war. By the end of 1947 there were virtually no Hindus or Sikhs living in west Punjab - now part of Pakistan - and no Muslims in the Indian east


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MOUNTBATTEN WITH NEHRU (ON HIS RIGHT) AND JINNAH(ON HIS LEFT)

                   









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 abandoned Muslim couple and their grand children sitting by the the roadside on this arduous journey. "The old man is dying of exhaustion. The caravan has gone on," wrote Bourke-White.




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Two Muslim men (in a rural refugee train headed towards Pakistan) carrying an old woman in a makeshift Doli or palanquin. 1947. Margaret Bourke-White




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young refugee Delhi 1947


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TRAIN TO PAKISTAN 1947
Muslims heading from India to Pakistan

MORE THAN A MILLION HINDUS AND MUSLIMS WERE MASSACRED IN THE PROCESS
    WAS THE MASSACRE  WAS ALSO  PART OF THE SECRET DEAL BETWEEN  THE BRITISH  AND THEIR AGENT, MR JINNAH?