Cradle of civilization in Iraq--ubaid civilization 6000B.Cto 4000 B.C.
The Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer emerges in the Ubaid and Uruk periods, culminating in the mid 3rd millennium before giving rise to the Akkadian Empire in the 23rd century BC, often identified as the first
This 7-inch-tall female figurine is from the Ubaid period and is made of baked clay.
empire in history.
Eridu was the oldest Sumerian site, settled during the proto-civilized Ubaid period. Situated several miles southwest of Ur, Eridu was the southernmost of a conglomeration of early temple-cities, in Sumer, southern Mesopotamia,
Tell Zeidan dates from between 6000 and 4000 B.C. and is expected to shed much light on the Ubaid period (about 5300-4000 B.C.), which immediately preceded the world’s first urban civilizations in the ancient Middle East.
Thirty-one acres in extent, Tell Zeidan is situated where the Balikh River joins the Euphrates River in modern-day Syria. The location was at the crossroads of major trade routes across ancient Mesopotamia that followed the course of the Euphrates River valley.The two-millennium-long occupation spans four key periods: two phases of the late Copper Age on top, the Ubaid period in the middle and the Halaf period at the bottom,” Stein says.
One of our most remarkable finds was a stone stamp seal depicting a deer
. The seal was unusually large, about two inches by two-and-a-half inches,” Stein says. The seal was carved from a red stone not native to the area, but was similar in design to a seal found 185 miles to the east near Mosul in northern Iraq.
he people in Tell Zeidan also had access to copper ore from sources near modern-day Diyarbakir, Turkey, about 185 to 250 miles away. Those materials were smelted at Tell Zeidan to produce metal tools that represent the most advanced technology of the fifth millennium B.C
he wealth of the community came from irrigation-based agriculture, trade and manufacturing. Stein said the team found countless flint sickle blades—easily recognizable from the glossy sheen created when silica in the wheat’s stems polished the blades during harvest. The people used bitumen, a tar substance obtained from pits 43 miles away, to secure the blades onto handles.